Open Access (free)
Neil McNaughton

Issues concerning women The environment 120 9 ➤ The background and origins of the environment as a political issue ➤ A review of the ways in which the environment became a more prominent issue ➤ Description and assessment of New Labour environmental policies after 1997 DEFINING THE TERM ‘ENVIRONMENT’ The term ‘environment’ is a broad one and we need first to establish which aspects are covered here. For the purposes of this chapter, we will recognise the following meanings. ● Matters concerning the physical environment, including air and water quality

in Understanding British and European political issues
Annamaria Simonazzi

14 Labour policies in a deflationary environment Annamaria Simonazzi Introduction National models of employment, production and welfare both mediate and respond to multiple pressures for change associated with various external and internal challenges: increased globalisation, deregulation and financialisation of markets, technological change, the ageing of the population and migration flows. The analysis of these challenges, their effect ‘in maintaining, reshaping, revitalizing or indeed destabilizing national employment models’, as well as the interlocking

in Making work more equal
Analysing the linkages and exploring possibilities for improving health and wellbeing
Warren Smit

The ‘food environment’ of cities can be defined as the location and type of food sources, as well as the broader environmental factors that affect the production, retail and consumption of food in cities (such as levels of infrastructure). The food environment of cities has an impact on the health and wellbeing of residents, although the measurement of this impact has proved to be difficult. Although there is a growing body of research on the effect of food environments on health, this relationship has been under-recognised and under-studied in the global south

in Urban transformations and public health in the emergent city
A Model for Historical Reflection in the Humanitarian Sector
Kevin O’Sullivan and Réiseal Ní Chéilleachair

-making at home and in the field? Could a more robust engagement with humanitarianism as an historical phenomenon help us to better navigate the contemporary aid environment? If so, what steps can we take to translate the lessons of the past into future policy? This article outlines the results of a pilot project conducted by Trócaire and National University of Ireland (NUI) Galway on using history as a tool for policy-making in the humanitarian sector. It begins

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
A Framework for Measuring Effectiveness in Humanitarian Response
Vincenzo Bollettino and Birthe Anders

destroyed, diverted, or programs have to be scaled down to minimise risk to personnel. However, whether in complex emergencies or in response to natural disasters, militaries often play an important role in humanitarian relief efforts, sometimes by providing search and rescue and airlift capabilities or by restoring damaged infrastructure. Indeed, in most of today’s crises, humanitarian organisations operate in the same environment as a range of military and non-state armed actors. Coordination is often easier in natural disaster settings than in conflict, as there is a

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Four Decisive Challenges Confronting Humanitarian Innovation
Gerard Finnigan and Otto Farkas

complexity. It has been inextricably shifted by forces that are beyond the current structural, technical or resource capacity of the humanitarian system to respond to people in crisis with any proven efficacy ( Checchi et al. , 2016 ; Colombo and Pavignani, 2017 ; Spiegel, 2017 ). The most confronting factor is the magnitude of threat faced by communities from the deterioration of the physical environment and destruction of natural ecosystems on which their lives depend. The biological systems

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Lessons Learned for Engagement in Fragile and Conflict-Affected States
Logan Cochrane

restrictions on non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and levying of unreasonable fees for NGO personnel visas. After multiple attempts of peace negotiations, forms of power-sharing agreements have been attempted, yet these remain fragile and contested. One of the challenges for donors and organisations seeking to work in such a complex operational environment is the lack of available evidence to support decision making alongside the lack of experiential lessons for learning from practice. On the former, basic data is absent in nearly all sectors; 45 indicators in UNDP

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
A Focus on Community Engagement
Frédéric Le Marcis, Luisa Enria, Sharon Abramowitz, Almudena-Mari Saez, and Sylvain Landry B. Faye

by previous humanitarian experiences during and after the civil war. The Ebola Task Force’s disregard of local sensitivities, context and capabilities were put in sharp relief when transferring people to the ETU, collecting and incinerating corpses, asking people to monitor their neighbours, and during quarantines and lockdowns. Residents perceived the intervention as a threat to their livelihoods, social networks, lived environment and to the already weak public health

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Jay Garcia

The intellectual connection between James Baldwin and Lionel Trilling, and the resonances across their criticism, are more substantial than scholarly and biographical treatments have disclosed. For Trilling, Baldwin’s writings were notable for their deviation from most humanistic inquiry, which he considered insufficiently alert to the harms and depredations of culture. Baldwin’s work became for Trilling a promising indication that American criticism could be remade along the lines of a tragic conception of culture deriving from Freud. This essay concentrates on a relevant but neglected dynamic in American letters—the mid-twentieth-century tension between Freudian thought and American humanistic inquiry evident in fields like American Studies—to explain the intellectual coordinates within which Trilling developed an affinity for Baldwin’s work. The essay concludes by suggesting that the twilight of Freud’s tragic conception of culture, which figured centrally in the modernist critical environment in which Baldwin and Trilling encountered one another, contributed to an estrangement whereby the two came to be seen as unrelated and different kinds of critics, despite the consonance of their critical idioms during the 1940s and 1950s.

James Baldwin Review
The Law and Politics of Responding to Attacks against Aid Workers
Julia Brooks and Rob Grace

of their operational environments. Indeed, the salience of security management as a policy concern for humanitarian organisations has ballooned in recent decades. The aid industry has directed substantial efforts towards bureaucratising security management ( Schneiker, 2015 ; Beerli, 2018 ), raising the public visibility of the security risks that humanitarians face in the field (see, for example, Action Against Hunger, n.d.), probing the causes of attacks against aid workers ( Stoddard et al. , 2012 , 2017 ), and analysing and debating organisational approaches

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs