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For over five decades, the Cold War security agenda was distinguished by the principal strategic balance, that of a structure of bipolarity, between the United States (US) and the Soviet Union (USSR). This book seeks to draw from current developments in critical security studies in order to establish a new framework of inquiry for security in the Middle East. It addresses the need to redefine security in the Middle East. The focus is squarely on the Arab-Israeli context in general, and the Palestinian-Israeli context in particular. The character of Arab-Israeli relations are measured by the Israeli foreign policy debate from the 1950s to the 1990s. A dialogue between Islam and Islamism as a means to broaden the terrain on which conflict resolution and post-bipolar security in the Middle East is to be understood is presented. The Middle East peace process (MEPP) was an additional factor in problematizing the military-strategic concept of security in the Middle East. The shift in analysis from national security to human security reflects the transformations of the post-Cold War era by combining military with non-military concerns such as environmental damage, social unrest, economic mismanagement, cultural conflict, gender inequity and radical fundamentalism. By way of contrast to realist international relations (IR) theory, developing-world theorists have proposed a different set of variables to explain the unique challenges facing developing states. Finally, the book examines the significance of ecopolitics in security agendas in the Middle East.

How to make sense of responses to environmental problems

by those motivated, above all, by economic goals. Those adopting a dark-green position are also more likely to recognize the various inequalities relevant to environmental issues (Maguire et al ., 2002 ). These include both intergenerational inequalities, whereby future generations are impacted by the environmentally damaging activities of the present day, and inter-species inequalities, which pertain to the impacts of human behaviour on ‘voiceless’ non-humans such as flora and fauna. Ultimately

in The greening of golf
Open Access (free)

that few regard as desirable. Poverty bears an environmental dimension, since the poorest are those most likely to suffer from ecological degradation. However, although many anti-poverty policies will be environmentally benign, and many pro-environment policies will reduce poverty, the conjunction between social justice and environmental sustainability is by no means total. Some anti-poverty policies may need to be environmentally damaging, e.g. a dash for GDP growth, and some proenvironment policies may be detrimental to the poor, e.g. price rises on scarce

in After the new social democracy

the reconfiguration of environmentally damaging landscapes such as manufacturing plants and landfills to make them more in touch with nature (see American Society of Golf Course Architects, n.d.). Indeed, in Chapter 6 we explore the golf industry’s simultaneous promotion of golf course management as a technological wonder and of golf courses themselves as pristine, natural spaces. In Canada, IPM is still positioned by the CGSA as a ‘sustainable approach’, one “combining biological, cultural

in The greening of golf
Cardboard publishers in Latin America

emanates in material disadvantage. This hints at a broader social situation raised by Prestes: that those who deplete the most resources, represented here by the inhabitants of the gated communities, are also (but only partially and superficially) protected from the ugly and potentially harmful waste produced by their consumption. Environmental damage, perversely, impacts disproportionately on the poor – those people excluded from the society of producers and consumers – who are least responsible for producing it. ‘Cata as dores’, however, is not just a passive

in Literature and sustainability

the work and commentary of influential and respected golf course superintendent Jeff Carlson, a leading advocate of organic golf. Although Carlson is not anti-chemical per se – contending as he has that measured inputs of inorganic chemicals at key moments may reduce the need for other environmentally damaging activities – he could certainly be viewed as a social movement entrepreneur in the sense that he is demonstrating what is possible when it comes to the upkeep of a highly playable golf course that

in The greening of golf
continuity, innovation and renewal

government’s adoption of an increasingly aggressive stance. Key factors in the shift in the PSOE’s strategy were government efforts to push through labour legislation with minimum parliamentary debate in June, an unpopular reform of secondary education, and the government’s inept handling of the environmental damage caused by the sinking of the oil tanker, the Prestige, off the coast of Galicia in November 2002. It was nevertheless in the field of foreign affairs where the PSOE was able to establish its credentials as a party in touch with public feeling, most notably with

in In search of social democracy
Open Access (free)

that the consequences for nutrition and health of eating currently available food are deeply problematical. Other people worry about the culinary and aesthetic value of foodstuffs. And there are movements for animal welfare which raise ethical questions about the propriety of the practices of major actors in the food chain. Then there is the environmental damage that modern large-scale farming techniques bring. All these exist on top of more mainstream concerns with the price of food, with the level of profit and the degree of oligopoly in the various markets which

in Qualities of food
Discourses, contestation and alternative consumption

political motives, for example, are all present in the discourses that accompany the Canadian web resources: the rich Western countries, only twenty per cent of the world population, are consuming eighty per cent of the earth’s natural resources, causing a disproportionate level of environmental damage and unfair distribution of wealth. As consumers we need to question the products we buy and challenge the companies who produce them. (BND-UK press release, 23 November 2001) Most of the themes deployed in the initiative are only superficially close to an ascetic rhetoric

in Qualities of food
Open Access (free)
Redefining security in the Middle East

traditionally been absent from the field. This shift in analysis from national security to human security (the security of groups and individuals) reflects the transformations of the post-Cold War era by combining military with non-military concerns such as environmental damage, social unrest (refugees, rebellion and revolution), economic mismanagement, cultural conflict, gender inequity and radical

in Redefining security in the Middle East