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Common problem, varying strategies

Multinational corporations are not merely the problem in environmental concerns, but could also be part of the solution. The oil industry and climate change provide the clearest example of how the two are linked; what is less well known is how the industry is responding to these concerns. This book presents a detailed study of the climate strategies of ExxonMobil, Shell and Statoil. Using an analytical approach, the chapters explain variations at three decision-making levels: within the companies themselves, in the national home-bases of the companies and at an international level. The analysis generates policy-relevant knowledge about whether and how corporate resistance to a viable climate policy can be overcome. The analytical approach developed by this book is also applicable to other areas of environmental degradation where multinational corporations play a central role.

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Four Decisive Challenges Confronting Humanitarian Innovation

all over the world. For example, the American Red Cross established fire-detection sensors in informal settlements in Nairobi ( American Red Cross, 2016 ) and Digital Democracy (2014) partnered with the Indigenous Wapichana people of Guyana to build and operate drones to monitor environmental degradation. UNICEF designed and delivered a crisis-response trauma programme to train Rwandese ‘trauma advisors’, ‘who in turn trained 6193 social agents

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
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The Debt–Growth–Inequality Nexus

possible only by the availability of affordable energy. We will first examine briefly the history of the growth paradigm and the dilemmas that it poses. Then we will examine why maintaining the necessary rate of growth becomes more difficult, and why it necessitates yet more debt and the continuing acceleration of environmental degradation and differential power accumulation. Then, we will reconsider Thomas Piketty’s (2014) work by examining the acceleration of differential power or inequality in light of our analysis of debt as a technology of power. More specifically

in Debt as Power
Open Access (free)

the 1960s. A larger amount of scientific evidence was emerging. Information gathered about links between air pollution and diseases such as cancer and asthma. Concerns about the increasing danger to many animal and plant species were growing. Scientists began to suspect that long-term changes in climate were taking place and were possibly the result of environmental degradation. The two oil price crises of the 1970s alerted the developed world to its over-reliance on a single source of energy. This led to a search for new sources of energy which would be both

in Understanding British and European political issues

environmental degradation and the outbreak of violent civil or interstate conflict’.2 This proposition reflects current research suggesting that globally fresh water is the renewable resource most likely to be a source of conflict in the near future.3 Historically water provided a cultural, economic and geographical focus for Central Asia. The khanates’ political culture, including deferential collectivism, was associated with water scarcity and the organisational requirements of the construction and maintenance of irrigation systems.4 Irrigation was ‘one of the principle

in Limiting institutions?
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social democratic tradition after the formation of the Second International in 1889. She also indicates the continuing relevance of this tradition by looking forward, to the prospects for social democracy in the twenty-first century. At a time of economic turbulence and environmental degradation, she argues, the characteristic social democratic emphasis on collective, democratic, non-market solutions still holds a considerable appeal. As should be apparent, no party line has been imposed on the contributors. A variety of perspectives emerge in the following pages

in In search of social democracy
How to make sense of responses to environmental problems

German, Dutch, and British writing on the evolution of industrialization and its environmental impacts. At its core, EM theory rests on the simple premise that economic growth and environmental degradation can effectively be ‘decoupled’: the former need not necessarily engender the latter. The EM narrative is therefore distinguishable from the narratives offered by proponents of theories such as ‘limits to growth’ and the ‘treadmill of production’ (both described below) who assert that economic

in The greening of golf
Open Access (free)

) does not address the essential critique. The merit of a Green GDP/GNP, then, is that it ties in with existing practice and offers a short- to mediumterm solution that, through substitution, can slow down the rate of environmental degradation. The problem, as Stiglitz acknowledges, is that although substitution can reduce the resource amount needed to produce one unit of output, it cannot ever halt the depletion of resources. The problem of scarcity and finiteness is simply deferred. The implication is that Green GDP/GNP must eventually be superseded by less

in After the new social democracy
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plants have led to wide-ranging environmental degradation and acidification. Close to the smelters, the forest is completely dead. According Air pollution control Figure 6.2 Approximate forest damage zones in the vicinity of Monchegorsk and Nikel and the visible-damage zones on the Kola Peninsula and in Finnish Lapland Source: AMAP (1998). 149 150 International environmental agreements in Russia to the Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme’s report on the state of the Arctic environment (AMAP 1997), the forest-death area around Monchegorsk covers 400

in Implementing international environmental agreements in Russia
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product patents (Gleckman, 1995). In addition to climate change, a wide range of global environmental problems – including ozone depletion, loss of biodiversity, over-fishing, and illegal trade in hazardous wastes – has been linked to the worldwide activities of multinational corporations (Retallack, 2000). Corporations thus represent powerful forces in environmental degradation and international as well as national environmental policy (Rondinelli and Berry, 2000). Despite the important role played by the oil companies in particular and large corporations in general

in Climate change and the oil industry