A Focus on Community Engagement

Introduction During the 2014 West African Ebola epidemic, an estimated US$ 10 billion was spent to contain the disease in the region and globally. The response brought together multilateral agencies, bilateral partnerships, private enterprises and foundations, local governments and communities. Social mobilisation efforts were pivotal components of the response architecture ( Gillespie et al. , 2016 ; Laverack and Manoncourt, 2015 ; Oxfam International, 2015 ). They relied on grassroots community actors, classic figures of humanitarian work or development

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
The CDC’s mission to Cold War East Pakistan, 1958

1 The uneasy politics of epidemic aid: the CDC's mission to Cold War East Pakistan, 1958 Paul Greenough Epidemic outbreaks, political struggle, civil society response Historians warn against narratives in which actors are spared the dilemmas of chance and choice. No doubt prolepsis, anachronism and teleology should be avoided, but I find it difficult to tell a story

in The politics of vaccination

publish studies with around 60 per 10,000. In 2008, a Japanese study then went out on a limb with a rate of 181.1 per 10,000, verging on 2 per cent. 83 Autism has since been reported to have grown in such proportions that it has become common in popular literature to talk of an autism ‘epidemic’. 84 This is somewhat ironic because Wing’s autism, the second autism, is hugely

in The metamorphosis of autism

Based on a study of intersecting French archives (those of the Val de Grâce Hospital, the Service Historique de la Défense and the Archives Diplomatiques), and with the support of numerous printed sources, this article focuses on the handling of the bodies of French soldiers who died of cholera during the Crimean War (1854–56). As a continuation of studies done by historians Luc Capdevila and Danièle Voldman, the aim here is to consider how the diseased corpses of these soldiers reveal both the causes and circumstances of their deaths. Beyond the epidemiological context, these dead bodies shed light on the sanitary conditions and suffering resulting from years of military campaigns. To conclude, the article analyses the material traces left by these dead and the way that the Second Empire used them politically, giving the remains of leaders who died on the front lines of the cholera epidemic a triumphant return to the country and a state funeral.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Editor’s Introduction

Most mainstream discourses on humanitarian security would not consider the community engagement of a team of anthropologists in three West African countries during the Ebola epidemic of 2014–16 as directly related to security – and their article in this special issue on ‘Security and Protection’ hardly touches on security as its own topic. Instead, it provides a detailed account of the need for a thorough understanding of social relationships when defining, and thus securing, humanitarian

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs

story was shared more than 300,000 times ( Dzieza, 2014 ) and may have contributed to the wider landscape of panic and xenophobia surrounding the epidemic. Online disinformation has also exacerbated conflict. In South Sudan, the UN reports that social media ‘has been used by partisans on all sides, including some senior government officials, to exaggerate incidents, spread falsehoods and veiled threats, or post outright messages of incitement’ ( UN Security Council, 2016 : 10). In one instance, a false news story, published on the website

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Ash dieback and plant biosecurity in Britain

initiatives are focused on monitoring, surveillance and, ultimately, disease control. Did these novel and exciting ways of opening up the monstrous materiality of Chalara in science correspond to an equal opening up of the Pandora’s box of free trade and its role in the perpetuation of plant disease epidemics to broader political scrutiny and public debate? Did it correspond to an opening up of policymaking in this field? ‘Biosecurity’: turning a complex socio-political problem into a techno-scientific challenge This section attempts to answer these questions. It draws on

in Science and the politics of openness
South Korea’s development of a hepatitis B vaccine and national prevention strategy focused on newborns

towards death, but it is also possible that the infected person would first develop cirrhosis or cancer of the liver. In the aftermath of the Second World War viral hepatitis attracted increasing research attention. An extensive hepatitis epidemic, which was noticed by US Army health officers, occurred among American troops stationed in Germany, but the transmission route of viral hepatitis was highly uncertain. It was not only in Germany that viral hepatitis

in The politics of vaccination
Open Access (free)

The supposed apathy shown towards diphtheria by certain sections of the British public was largely overcome by the 1960s – or, at least, immunisation rates had improved to such an extent that the Ministry of Health was no longer concerned about widespread diphtheria epidemics. Yet it did not have the same successes with smallpox vaccination. The problem of low rates of infant vaccination and childhood revaccination among the population remained a continual source of irritation for the Ministry. In the government's favour, the success of

in Vaccinating Britain
Colonialism and Native Health nursing in New Zealand, 1900–40

a smallpox epidemic claimed fifty-five Māori but no Pakeha lives.10 The death rate from influenza in 1918 was ten times higher amongst Māori than non-Māori.11 But the most immediate challenges in the early twentieth century were repeated outbreaks of typhoid in Māori kainga (villages). Public health historian F.  S. Maclean estimated that in one small Māori community there were 258 known cases of typhoid in 1916 alone.12 Typhoid was reflective of the poor sanitary conditions of Māori settlements in that era. Origins of the Native Nursing scheme The concept of a

in Colonial caring