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A history of child development in Britain
Author: Bonnie Evans

This book explains the current fascination with autism by linking it to a longer history of childhood development. Drawing from a staggering array of primary sources, it traces autism back to its origins in the early twentieth century and explains why the idea of autism has always been controversial and why it experienced a 'metamorphosis' in the 1960s and 1970s. The book locates changes in psychological theory in Britain in relation to larger shifts in the political and social organisation of schools, hospitals, families and childcare. It explores how government entities have dealt with the psychological category of autism. The book looks in detail at a unique children's 'psychotic clinic' set up in London at the Maudsley Hospital in the 1950s. It investigates the crisis of government that developed regarding the number of 'psychotic' children who were entering the public domain when large long-stay institutions closed. The book focuses on how changes in the organisation of education and social services for all children in 1970 gave further support to the concept of autism that was being developed in London's Social Psychiatry Research Unit. It also explores how new techniques were developed to measure 'social impairment' in children in light of the Seebohm reforms of 1968 and other legal changes of the early 1970s. Finally, the book argues that epidemiological research on autism in the 1960s and 1970s pioneered at London's Institute of Psychiatry has come to define global attempts to analyse and understand what, exactly, autism is.

Bonnie Evans

psychological framework model for recognising both disability rights and children’s rights. This chapter explores how British epidemiological research on autism in the 1960s and 1970s came to define global attempts to analyse and understand what, exactly, autism is. It argues that these changes have been associated with wider global changes relating to the definition and construction of children’s rights. Studies of

in The metamorphosis of autism
Nikolas Rose

Epidemiological research has repeatedly pointed to the increased prevalence of both ‘common’ and ‘severe’ mental disorders in cities, and proposed a range of competing hypotheses to account for this relationship. Recent research on the social determinants of mental ill health has identified correlations between social disadvantage and mental disorder, but attempts to identify the pertinent dimensions of adversity have proved inconclusive. Many contemporary researchers suggest that the disadvantages experienced and the adversities undergone must in some way be instantiated neurologically, and returned to an old idea that ‘stress’ is the mediating mechanism. Recently, in the face of arguments about the prevalence of mental ill health in their own cities, urban policy makers have attempted to make their city a place where individuals and communities can ‘thrive’. This chapter brings together research on urban mental health and emerging programmes for healthy cities, and examines the extent to which we are seeing ‘evidence-based’ programmes and policies for mental health in urban settings.

in Urban transformations and public health in the emergent city
Open Access (free)
Environmental justice and citizen science in a post-truth age
Editors: Thom Davies and Alice Mah

This book examines the relationship between environmental justice and citizen science, focusing on enduring issues and new challenges in a post-truth age. Debates over science, facts, and values have always been pivotal within environmental justice struggles. For decades, environmental justice activists have campaigned against the misuses of science, while at the same time engaging in community-led citizen science. However, post-truth politics has threatened science itself. This book makes the case for the importance of science, knowledge, and data that are produced by and for ordinary people living with environmental risks and hazards. The international, interdisciplinary contributions range from grassroots environmental justice struggles in American hog country and contaminated indigenous communities, to local environmental controversies in Spain and China, to questions about “knowledge justice,” citizenship, participation, and data in citizen science surrounding toxicity. The book features inspiring studies of community-based participatory environmental health and justice research; different ways of sensing, witnessing, and interpreting environmental injustice; political strategies for seeking environmental justice; and ways of expanding the concepts and forms of engagement of citizen science around the world. While the book will be of critical interest to specialists in social and environmental sciences, it will also be accessible to graduate and postgraduate audiences. More broadly, the book will appeal to members of the public interested in social justice issues, as well as community members who are thinking about participating in citizen science and activism. Toxic Truths includes distinguished contributing authors in the field of environmental justice, alongside cutting-edge research from emerging scholars and community activists.

Martin D. Moore

health was closely connected to imperial and wartime politics, as well as discourses of health rights, responsibilities, and citizenship in liberal and socialist traditions. 30 At the same time, clinical medicine was also organising itself around technologies and concepts of the collective. By the 1940s, experiments had been undertaken with multi-sited clinical trials and community-focused epidemiological research, both of which were later geared towards determining clinical and public health practice. 31 When launched in July 1948, the NHS was

in Managing diabetes, managing medicine
Open Access (free)
Emilio Santoro

their logic, for staying in or re-entering if expelled. On the classical liberal view, criminal policy was the junction point of this system, segregating those unable to re-enter and trying, at least in principle, to enable them to do so after an intensive ‘treatment’. The classification of people into classes defined by the statistical findings of epidemiological research draws a different image of society as a homogeneous

in Political concepts
South Korea’s development of a hepatitis B vaccine and national prevention strategy focused on newborns
Eun Kyung Choi and Young-Gyung Paik

vaccine, which became known as ‘Kim's vaccine’, using serum from the blood of HBV-infected patients. Although he made use of clinical data, his research contained no data from experiments on primates. Two years later, the hepatitis rate in Korea became a prominent issue. In 1979, Dr Kim and Dr Hong, his pupil, researched sero-epidemiological patterns of hepatitis B in Korea. 10 There had been some previous sero-epidemiological research into

in The politics of vaccination
From the development of a national surveillance system to the birth of an international network
Roberto Pasetto and Ivano Iavarone

has received a growing number of requests by local authorities for help in understanding whether and to what extent the health of their residents was at risk in areas contaminated by the industries; they also requested advice on what could be done to eliminate or limit risks, as well as how to carry out decontamination and remediation work. In some cases, it was the epidemiological research implemented by ISS that enabled researchers to identify health risks from environmental pollution in areas that were eventually recognized as national priority contaminated sites

in Toxic truths
Open Access (free)
Bonnie Evans

constituted ‘society’. These were arguably just as abstract as definitions of mental states, although epidemiological researchers did not view it this way. In descriptions of the early stages of socialisation in the first two to three years of life, one could argue that ‘the social’ could be measured quite successfully through behavioural criteria such as reaching to be carried, seeking eye contact and

in The metamorphosis of autism
Open Access (free)
Perceiving, describing and modelling child development
Bonnie Evans

tests for measuring autism and ‘social impairment’. The legal changes of the 1970s and 1980s thus supported the efforts of the new autism psychologists and enabled them to establish the psychology of the autism spectrum as the dominant model for understanding child development and its variations. The final chapter argues that epidemiological research on autism in the

in The metamorphosis of autism