Insights from 'Africa's World War'

Everyday resistance, peacebuilding and state-making addresses debates on liberal peace and the policies of peacebuilding through a theoretical and empirical study of resistance in peacebuilding contexts. Examining the case of ‘Africa’s World War’ in the DRC, it locates resistance in the experiences of war, peacebuilding and state-making by exploring discourses, violence and everyday forms of survival as acts that attempt to challenge or mitigate such experiences. The analysis of resistance offers a possibility to bring the historical and sociological aspects of both peacebuilding and the case of the DRC, providing new nuanced understanding of these processes and the particular case.

A view from below
Marta Iñiguez de Heredia

2 Patterns and practices of everyday resistance: a view from below T What is everyday resistance? he informalities, ambiguities and contradictions that peacebuilding runs into reflect the political nature of the process. These become visible when examined from the everyday practices of the actors involved. In IR the everyday has become synonymous with the makings of actual subjects in their most quotidian roles (Autesserre 2014; Hobson and Seabrooke 2007; Mitchell 2011b; Neumann 2002). This is not so much a new field of study, as it represents a common call

in Everyday resistance, peacebuilding and state-making
Marta Iñiguez de Heredia

7 Everyday resistance and everyday order in world politics D espite the increasing involvement of peacebuilding strategies in spheres of sovereign authority after the Cold War, and despite the fact that these strategies aim to reconstitute state authority, peacebuilding continues to be thought of as external to the conflicts and violent dynamics it addresses. The critical peace and conflict studies literature has challenged this vision, but in trying to understand the power dynamics in peacebuilding processes it has reified a binary vision by analysing these

in Everyday resistance, peacebuilding and state-making
Marta Iñiguez de Heredia

5 Everyday violence and Mai Mai militias in Eastern DRC What would you do if the state was a man? I’ll kill him.1 A From words to weapons lthough there were skirmishes, especially throughout the 1990s, Chapter 3 has already exposed how the first phase of the conflict was the defining moment in which the armed mobilisation of subordinate classes took place. The fact that the AFDL war was conducted under the guise of a national liberation movement and led by Laurent-Désiré Kabila succeeded in reviving the Mai Mai historical sentiment of fighting against

in Everyday resistance, peacebuilding and state-making
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Resistance and the liberal peace: a missing link
Marta Iñiguez de Heredia

economic goods, including decision-making power, privileges, rights and access to material resources, is established. This process both continues and changes the distributing mechanisms that were in place before the conflict started. Peacebuilding is therefore a process that is constituted and resisted by the multiple actors involved. However, it has been studied much more as an instrument of power and order than as a process that is resisted. 1 Everyday resistance, peacebuilding and state-making The liberal peace debates have produced a body of critical research that

in Everyday resistance, peacebuilding and state-making
Interpreting deposition in the bog
Melanie Giles

Bronze Age deposition, in which (against a background of weapons, tools and jewellery) he singles out a particular category of artefact characterised by their exaggerated appearance. Their shape, design or material may reference more mundane examples, but there will be something about these objects – their spectacular size or weight, complexity or virtuoso crafting or use of exotic materials – that ‘aggrandise’ them above their everyday counterparts. There are also objects that are completely without parallel in the daily world. Some make explicit cosmological

in Bog bodies
Le Bone Florence of Rome and bourgeois self-making
Felicity Riddy

9 Temporary virginity and the everyday body: Le Bone Florence of Rome and bourgeois self-making Felicity Riddy I The earliest surviving representation of an English bourgeois family at prayer appears in a fifteenth-century book of hours, now known as the Bolton Hours, made for members of a York mercantile family.1 The picture – one of a sequence of full-page illustrations – depicts a Crucifix-Trinity with four figures kneeling in front of it: a father and mother in the centre, flanked by a son and a daughter on the left and right. They all have scrolls issuing

in Pulp fictions of medieval England
Marta Iñiguez de Heredia

global. Whether resistance is exercised discursively, violently or, as will be explored in this chapter, as a form of survival, it is conditioned by the way authority is asserted along the axis of state absence and presence. Nonetheless, in this interstice, solidarity, and not just coercion and extraction, is an important element of the everyday political landscape. Creativity, as the art of la débrouille,4 is defined here as the use of imagination, solidarity and reciprocity to produce anything that allows or improves survival. Although a rumba song may have captured

in Everyday resistance, peacebuilding and state-making
Marta Iñiguez de Heredia

arena of freedom, it provides a safer audience among relative equals.2 The public transcript has several functions, including: concealment (hiding the nasty aspects 107 Everyday resistance, peacebuilding and state-making of power and elites’ disagreement), unanimity (giving a sense of agreement between elites and non-elites and denying dissent), euphemism and stigma (beautifying power and uglifying dissent) and public parade (dramatising the grandeur of power) (Scott 1990: 45–66). These functions are visible in that peacebuilding’s claim to authority is done by

in Everyday resistance, peacebuilding and state-making
Marta Iñiguez de Heredia

that is experienced today still shows aspects of those several layers of conflict. The various forms of resistance linked to how conflict and peacebuilding have affected the everyday lives of popular classes predate the conflict. Looking at the coercive and extractive practices of states writ large, resistance shows that it follows patterns in state–society relations. Resistance also shows the particular configuration the that Congolese state has taken as a result of colonisation, decolonisation and the Cold War. For Schatzberg, this configuration made the 75

in Everyday resistance, peacebuilding and state-making