Open Access (free)
The imaginary archaeology of redevelopment
David Calder

3 Excavation: the imaginary archaeology of redevelopment Vaulx-en-Velin, May 2012. I have reached the end of the line. I alight from the subway train at Vaulx-en-Velin La Soie, the ‘multimodal’ transit hub that since October 2007 has connected this far-flung eastern banlieue to Lyon city centre. Diffuse light from frosted skylights bathes the underground platform in a soft glow. Warm-toned woods and evenly spaced palm trees set this station apart from the older, workaday concrete models I left behind in Lyon and Villeurbanne. In the years following this visit

in Street theatre and the production of postindustrial space
Jose López Mazz

This article will describe the contemporary scientific techniques used to excavate and identify the dead bodies of disappeared detainees from the Uruguayan dictatorship. It will highlight the developments that have led to increased success by forensic anthropologists and archaeologists in uncovering human remains, as well as their effects, both social and political, on promoting the right to the truth and mechanisms of transitional justice.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Andrzej Grzegorczyk

The Kulmhof extermination camp in Chełmno nad Nerem was the first camp set up by the Nazis to exterminate Jews during the Second World War. The history of Kulmhof has long been an area of interest for academics, but despite thorough research it remains one of the least-known places of its kind among the public. Studies of the role of archaeology in acquiring knowledge about the functioning of the camp have been particularly compelling. The excavations carried out intermittently over a thirty-year period (1986–2016), which constitute the subject of this article, have played a key role in the rise in public interest in the history of the camp.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Marco Aurelio Guimarães, Raffaela Arrabaça Francisco, Martin Evison, Edna Sadayo Miazato Iwamura, Carlos Eduardo Palhares Machado, Ricardo Henrique Alves da Silva, Maria Eliana Castro Pinheiro, Diva Santana, and Julie Alvina Guss Patrício

Exhumation may be defined as the legally sanctioned excavation and recovery of the remains of lawfully buried or – occasionally – cremated individuals, as distinct from forensic excavations of clandestinely buried remains conducted as part of a criminal investigation and from unlawful disinterment of human remains, commonly referred to as bodysnatching. The aim of this article is to review the role of exhumation – so defined – in the activities of CEMEL, the Medico-Legal Centre of the Ribeirão Preto Medical School-University of São Paulo, in international, regional and local collaborations. Exhumations form part of routine forensic anthropology casework; scientific research in physical and forensic anthropology; and forensic casework conducted in collaboration with the Brazilian Federal Police; and are carried out as part of humanitarian investigations into deaths associated with the civil–military dictatorship of 1964 to 1985. This article aims to offer a non-technical summary – with reference to international comparative information – of the role of exhumation in investigative and scientific work and to discuss developments in their historical and political context.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Deposits, waste or ritual remnants?
Philippe Lefranc and Fanny Chenal

Among the numerous human remains found in circular pits belonging to the fourth millennium BCE cultures north of the Alps, there are many examples of bodies laid in random (or unconventional) positions. Some of these remains in irregular configurations, interred alongside an individual in a conventional flexed position, can be considered as a ‘funerary accompaniment’. Other burials, of isolated individuals or multiple individuals buried in unconventional positions, suggest the existence of burial practices outside of the otherwise strict framework of funerary rites. The focus of this article is the evidence recently arising from excavation and anthropological studies from the Upper Rhine Plain (Michelsberg and Munzingen cultures). We assume that these bodies in unconventional positions were not dumped as trash, but that they were a part of the final act of a complex ritual. It is hypothesised that these bodies, interpreted here as ritual waste, were sacrificial victims, and a number of possible explanations, including ‘peripheral accompaniment’ or victims of acts of war, are debated.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Burials, body parts and bones in the earlier Upper Palaeolithic
Erik Trinkaus, Sandra Sázelová, and Jiří Svoboda

The rich earlier Mid Upper Palaeolithic (Pavlovian) sites of Dolní Vĕstonice I and II and Pavlov I (∼32,000–∼30,000 cal BP) in southern Moravia (Czech Republic) have yielded a series of human burials, isolated pairs of extremities and isolated bones and teeth. The burials occurred within and adjacent to the remains of structures (‘huts’), among domestic debris. Two of them were adjacent to mammoth bone dumps, but none of them was directly associated with areas of apparent discard (or garbage). The isolated pairs and bones/teeth were haphazardly scattered through the occupation areas, many of them mixed with the small to medium-sized faunal remains, from which many were identified post-excavation. It is therefore difficult to establish a pattern of disposal of the human remains with respect to the abundant evidence for site structure at these Upper Palaeolithic sites. At the same time, each form of human preservation raises questions about the differential mortuary behaviours, and hence social dynamics, of these foraging populations and how we interpret them through an archaeological lens.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
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The first Dutch excavation in Italy, 1952–58
Arthur Weststeijn and Laurien de Gelder

4 Digging dilettanti: the first Dutch excavation in Italy, 1952–58 Arthur Weststeijn and Laurien de Gelder What determines the possibility of an archaeological excavation abroad and its success? In September 1952, when two Dutch archaeologists with little experience on the ground started digging underneath the Santa Prisca church on the Aventine hill in Rome, this seemingly trivial question loomed large over their pioneering efforts. For decades, Rome had been the obvious centre of all archaeological attention worldwide – but the Eternal City was essentially

in Communities and knowledge production in archaeology
The forensic and political lives of secondary mass graves in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Admir Jugo and Sari Wastell

’s secondary mass graves in the country’s processes of social reconciliation and peace-building. A definition of the mass grave Over the course of time, ever since the first excavations of mass graves, there have always been attempts at defining what constitutes a mass grave. Currently, there are several definitions and typologies of mass graves that have been put forward. Some of these definitions are based solely on the minimum number of bodies buried, while others try to define a mass grave not only by the number of bodies buried, but by the processes of creation and

in Human remains and identification
Open Access (free)
Antonín Salač and the French School at Athens
Thea De Armond

’2 – especially these last two – on a wide range of topics, particularly epigraphy, ancient Greek and Roman religion and numismatics; later in his career, he turned toward Byzantology (see Avenarius et al., 1992; Havlíková, 1999). Salač conducted archaeological excavations in Greece, Turkey and Bulgaria, among the first excavations under the Czechoslovak flag. However, his most significant legacy may be as an ‘organiser of scholarly life’,3 as founder of the still-extant Centre for Greek, Roman and Latin Studies4 (now, the Centre for Classical Studies)5 at the

in Communities and knowledge production in archaeology
Open Access (free)
Jenny Edkins

The chapter explores practices of problematisation and expertise. It argues that looking for solutions to problems can reproduce the regime of truth that leads to the so-called problems in the first place. Problematising famine is an example, and what are put forward as ways of ending hunger can turn out to be functioning to reproduce it. Turning to expertise, the chapter examines the case of Dr David Kelly, a scientist who attempted to challenge the manipulation of intelligence to justify the Iraq war. When an ‘expert’ such as Kelly enters the political fray, their voices are sometimes either not heard, or even suppressed. Is there an alternative? The chapter suggests that thinking in terms of a slow listening and an excavation of forgotten subaltern knowledge – and a quiet rebuilding of the world, brick by brick – may help.

in Change and the politics of certainty