Helen Jarvis

The Khmer Rouge forbade the conduct of any funeral rites at the time of the death of the estimated two million people who perished during their rule (1975–79). Since then, however, memorials have been erected and commemorative ceremonies performed, both public and private, especially at former execution sites, known widely as the killing fields. The physical remains themselves, as well as images of skulls and the haunting photographs of prisoners destined for execution, have come to serve as iconic representations of that tragic period in Cambodian history and have been deployed in contested interpretations of the regime and its overthrow.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Patricio Galella

During the Spanish Civil War, extrajudicial executions and disappearances of political opponents took place and their corpses were buried in unregistered mass graves. The absence of an official policy by successive democratic governments aimed at the investigation of these cases, the identification and exhumation of mass graves, together with legal obstacles, have prevented the victims families from obtaining reparation, locating and recovering the human remains. This paper argues that this state of affairs is incompatible with international human rights law and Spain should actively engage in the search for the whereabouts and identification of the bodies with all the available resources.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Timothy Longman

the Holocaust. In March 1995, a research team organised by Alison Des Forges of HRW and Eric Gillet of FIDH established an office in Rwanda and began to gather evidence, focusing both on the organisation of the genocide at the national level and on its execution at the local level, with an exploration of three local case studies. The research project that ultimately involved a dozen researchers culminated in the publication in 1999 of the 789-page report, Leave None to Tell the Story: Genocide in Rwanda , written primarily by Des Forges (1999) . Leave None to

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Fabrice Weissman

the Islamic State (IS) in 2014, did not prevent their execution. On the contrary, the silence of their organisation and the media may have bolstered the jihadist movement’s claim that they were spies, while enabling the British government to maintain, unchallenged, its intransigent no-negotiations policy ( Dettmer, 2014 ; Simon, 2014 ). In other words, while controlling information shared internally and with the public is one of the key factors in

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
The Law and Politics of Responding to Attacks against Aid Workers
Julia Brooks and Rob Grace

execution of seventeen of its staff in their compound in Mutur, Sri Lanka in 2006. Just as MSF did in the wake of the Kunduz bombing, ACF alleged that the massacre constituted a war crime and called for an independent investigation ( Action Against Hunger, 2006 ). While many suspected the involvement of state security forces in the massacre, the government of Sri Lanka attributed the killings to a rebel non-state armed group, and a commission of inquiry that the government established was later disbanded without issuing a public report ( Amnesty International, 2009

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Visual Advocacy in the Early Decades of Humanitarian Cinema
Valérie Gorin

from seventy to a hundred dead might have been filled with “property” corpses, was puerile’ ( Record , 1922b : 151). Starvation , for its part, included controversial scenes showing a German firing squad shooting Bolshevik prisoners and hangings of Bolshevik spies. The execution was filmed in Latvia by one of the American crewmen on 26 May 1919, and remains ‘one of the most sensational film sequences ever shot’ because it is a direct account of a war crime ( Patenaude, 2012 ). The film premiered in New York on 9 January 1920, and the brutalities shown prompted

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Resilience and the Language of Compassion
Diego I. Meza

have requested restitution, the Land Restitution Unit has only admitted 20 per cent, and of the more than 6 million hectares of land stripped or abandoned that are estimated to exist in Colombia, the Unit has not restored even 6 per cent. See the full report: https://cerosetenta.uniandes.edu.co/la-paradoja-del-campesino-con-desplazamiento-y-sin-restitucion/ . 8 Extra-judicial executions have been commonly called ‘false positives’, ‘a technical expression generally used to designate “the coldblooded and premeditated murder of innocent civilians for the sake

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Hakim Khaldi

areas controlled by IS have suffered threefold: firstly, from the arbitrary executions carried out by IS security bodies on an almost daily basis; secondly, from a total lack of protection during the military offensive; and thirdly, those who survived the fighting were considered by SDF to be IS activists and have been imprisoned without trial ever since. The Limits to the Collaboration with Kobani Health Authority: The Case

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Interpreting Violence on Healthcare in the Early Stage of the South Sudanese Civil War
Xavier Crombé and Joanna Kuper

a peace settlement ( ibid .: 365–7). Analysing the events in Juba in the immediate aftermath of the showdown between Kiir and Machar on 15 December 2013, Human Rights Watch pointed to the Presidential Guard’s – recruited among the President’s Dinka community – mass targeting of Nuer civilians, including public figures, for arrest and execution in the capital city as playing a crucial role in the rapid mobilisation of Nuer on the opposition’s side in Unity and Upper Nile

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Why Building Back Better Means More than Structural Safety
Bill Flinn

vernacular. In the poorest and most marginalised locations housing is often informal, illegal and can be highly dangerous. While improving the level of safety in these places is imperative, achieving a level of safety that would satisfy any building inspector could only happen if a ‘whole house’ solution were to be adopted, whereby the agency is responsible for the provision of the house, from its design to execution. Apart from this being a very expensive option, there is a history of failed post-disaster housing projects, some unoccupied or abandoned, that have gone down

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs