Author: Cas Mudde

This book provides a comprehensive and detailed analysis of the five main parties of the extreme right in the Netherlands (Centrumdemocraten, Centrumpartij), Belgium (Vlaams Blok), and Germany (Die Republikaner, Deutsche Volksunion). Using primary research — including internal party documents — it concludes that rather than right-wing and extremist, the core ideology of these parties is xenophobic nationalist, including also a mix of law and order and welfare chauvinism. The author's research and conclusions have broader implications for the study of the extreme-right phenomenon and party ideology in general.

Cas Mudde

chap1 28/5/02 13.30 Page 1 1 The extreme right party family Studies of political parties have been based on a multiplicity of both scholarly and political theories, and have focused on a variety of internal and external aspects. As is common within the scientific community, complaints have been voiced about the lack of knowledge in particular areas of the field, such as party (as) organisations (Mair 1994), party ideology (Von Beyme 1985), and minor or small parties (Fischer 1980; Müller-Rommel 1991). However, even though a lot of work certainly remains to

in The ideology of the extreme right
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Cas Mudde

chap3 28/5/02 13.31 Page 60 3 Deutsche Volksunion The whims of an extreme right business man One of the most influential people in the German post-war extreme right scene is Gerhard Frey, the multi-millionaire media czar who owns and publishes several newspapers (see Müller 1989: 66–74; Backes and Jesse 1993: 295–7; Mecklenburg 1999b). Born in 1933 into a traditional national-conservative merchant family, Frey first worked for the Deutsche Soldatenzeitung (German Soldiers Newspaper, DSZ) and later bought 50 per cent of its stock. During the 1960s his

in The ideology of the extreme right
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Cas Mudde

party membership increased further, doubling from 4,000 to 8,000 between December 1986 and December 1988. The party failed to translate this upward trend in membership into votes, however. In September 1987 it gained 1.2 per cent in Bremen, in March 1988 1.0 per cent in Baden-Württemberg and in May 1988 just 0.6 per cent in Schleswig-Holstein. In all cases the REP remained behind the scores of ‘other’ extreme right parties that contested the elections, the DVU and the NPD. These electoral defeats intensified the general idea that the REP was, as its mother party the

in The ideology of the extreme right
‘Nederland voor de Nederlanders!’
Cas Mudde

chap5 28/5/02 13.32 Page 117 Part III The Netherlands: ‘Nederland voor de Nederlanders!’ The extreme right in the Netherlands, 1945–84 Following the end of the Second World War the Dutch process of denazification began with the internment of some 100,000 collaborators. Several former members of the Nationaal Socialistische Beweging in Nederland (National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands, NSB), the only legal Dutch political party during the German occupation, and of the (Waffen-) SS lost their political rights, mostly for several years (see Bank 1998

in The ideology of the extreme right
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Cas Mudde

election programme and has since proved rather consistent. The only party that effected substantial changes in both the structure and content of its programme is the REP, which replaced its original CSU-like programme within two years with a far shorter and more radical manifesto. This latter would function as the ideological chap7 28/5/02 13.33 166 Page 166 The ideology of the extreme right core of the later programmes, which maintained the radical tone of the manifesto but combined it with the structure of the first programme. There are big differences between

in The ideology of the extreme right
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‘Deutschland den Deutschen!’
Cas Mudde

chap2 28/5/02 13.31 Page 25 Part I Germany: ‘Deutschland den Deutschen!’ The extreme right in Germany, 1945–80 After the capitulation of Nazi Germany, the country was briefly occupied and divided into zones by the main four allied forces (France, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom and the United States). Because of the occupation and the allied denazification policy, political organisations were initially severely hindered in their development. They could, for instance, only organise at the community and later the zone level (Backes and Jesse 1993

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‘Eigen volk eerst!’
Cas Mudde

chap4 28/5/02 13.32 Page 81 Part II Flanders: ‘Eigen volk eerst!’ The extreme right in Flanders, 1917–80 Until the beginning of the First World War, the heterogenous Vlaamse Beweging (Flemish Movement) was primarily cultural in orientation (see Willemsen 1969: 10–27). Its principal goal was the emancipation of the Dutch language (i.e. Flemish) and culture from the dominance of French speaking Belgium, and its supporters looked favourably upon a multinational Belgian state. The First World War led to a split in the movement: a small section collaborated with

in The ideology of the extreme right
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.6 per cent of the vote. This meant that after nine consecutive years in 1 The Dutch anti-fascist movement Kafka had come to the same account one month earlier. From its detailed overview one can read that most of the ‘twenty odd’ have defected to other parties at the extreme right, most notably the Nederlands Blok (Dutch Block, NB) – led by the former ‘crown prince’ of the CD Wim Vreeswijk – and the Burgerpartij Nederland (Citizens Party Netherlands, BPN), an initiative of former CD council members in Roosendaal (see Kafkanieuwsbrief 12/94). chap5 28/5/02 13

in The ideology of the extreme right
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he had called on Dillen to muck out the ‘immoral stables’ – referring to some of the prominent VB members (Verstraete 1992: 125). Moreover, prompted in part by the electoral successes of like-minded parties in the surrounding countries (the French FN and the Dutch CP), the VB revamped its propaganda. It grew more and more from an anti-Egmont VU split into a broad and modern extreme right party. This did not, however, immediately result in rewards at the polls. In 1984 the VB won 2.1 per cent in the European election, thereby failing to gain entry into the European

in The ideology of the extreme right