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Coping with intertwined conflicts
Author: Amikam Nachmani

Turkey's involvement in the Gulf War in 1991 paved the way for the country's acceptance into the European Union. This book traces that process, and in the first part looks at Turkey's foreign policy in the 1990s, considering the ability of the country to withstand the repercussions of the fall of communism. It focuses on Turkey's achievement in halting and minimising the effects of the temporary devaluation in its strategic importance that resulted from the waning of the Cold War and the disintegration of the Soviet Union; the skilful way in which Turkey avoided becoming embroiled in the ethnic upheavals in Central Asia, the Balkans and the Middle East; and the development of a continued policy of closer integration into the European and western worlds. Internal politics are the focus of the second part of the book, addressing the curbing of the Kurdish revolt, the economic gains made and the strengthening of civil society. The book goes on to analyse the prospects for Turkey in the twenty-first century, in the light of the possible integration into Europe, which may leave the country's leadership free to deal effectively with domestic issues.

Open Access (free)
Yalta farewell; how new a world?
Kjell M. Torbiörn

The fall of the Berlin Wall in November 1989 led, in rapid succession over the next two years, to German unification, Baltic state independence, the dissolution of the Soviet Union and its replacement by Russia and other successor countries, the fall of communism in Central and Eastern Europe, and the dissolution of the Warsaw Pact. Capitalism, liberalised world trade and new electronics technology seemed to have carried the day. The hope of the countries concerned for a new Marshall Plan was not met, but a new European Bank for Reconstruction and Development was meant to fulfil a similar function. In 1993, the European Union (EU) concluded a European Economic Area agreement with various European Free Trade Association countries, tying them closer to it in the areas of trade and investment. The disintegration of Yugoslavia beginning in 1990, and the several wars it led to, posed serious challenges to the EU and the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), apart from signifying a tragedy for the people of the region.

in Destination Europe
Open Access (free)
Amikam Nachmani

there any connection between the 1991 war in the Gulf and the December 1999 EU Helsinki decision to invite Turkey to negotiate its entrance into the Union? Perhaps not a direct one, but one cannot fail to see that the 1990s were marked by crossroads, developments, events, etc., which linked the two dates, perhaps even led to the December 1999 decision. This study will attempt to analyze these years. The 1990s were successful years as regards Ankara’s foreign relations. Turkey manifested its ability to withstand the repercussions of the fall of

in Turkey: facing a new millennium
Open Access (free)
Geir Hønneland and Anne-Kristin Jørgensen

the agreement in question? Is it possible to be a free rider under the accord? Finally, the social, cultural, political and economic characteristics of the implementing country are assumed to influence implementation and compliance. Theoretical background 33 Implementing international environmental commitments in post-Communist societies From the initiation of large-scale industrialisation in the Soviet Union in the 1930s and until the fall of Communism, the environmental policy performance of that country – and of the whole Eastern Bloc – was notoriously poor

in Implementing international environmental agreements in Russia
Open Access (free)
Cas Mudde

fall of communism the German Republikaner were the inspiration of several short-lived initiatives in countries such as Hungary, Ukraine and Latvia, with which Schönhuber was also in contact. The contacts with the only successful East European Republikaner, the Czechoslovak (and later Czech) Sdruzeni pro Republiku – Republikanska strana Ceskoslovenska (Association for the Republic – Republican Party of Czechoslovakia), were terminated in 1993 due to the increasing anti-German rhetoric of its leader Miroslav Sladek9 (Dvoraková 2000; Kopecky 1999). http

in The ideology of the extreme right
Nataša Gregorič Bon

. In our many discussions, Naso rarely mentioned his wife Frosina, who was still living and working in Athens. This conspicuous silence can be attributed to a society still dominated by masculine mores where, as in Çajupi’s poem, the majority of work is effectively Silenced border crossings in southern Albania 147 done by women but the ‘fruits’ of that labour are mostly enjoyed by the husbands without giving due recognition to the contribution of their wives. A few years after the fall of communism, Naso and Frosina – whose marriage was arranged by their parents

in Migrating borders and moving times
Open Access (free)
Cameron Ross

gazeta (13 May, 2001). 11 J. A. Corwin, RFE/RL Russian Federation Report, 2:9 (March 7, 2001), 5. 12 O. Oracheva, ‘Democracy and federalism in post-communist Russia (relations between Moscow and the regions in the Russian Federation)’, paper presented at the conference, ‘The Fall of Communism in Europe: Ten Years On’, May 14–17, 2001, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, p. 11. 13 ‘Presidential administration’s Samoilov on seven representatives’, EWI Russian Regional Report, 5:30 (August 2, 2000), 4–6. 14 See, E. Teague, ‘Putin reforms the federal system’, and R. Sakwa

in Federalism and democratisation in Russia
Cameron Ross

. Stepan, ‘Federalism and democracy’, 27. Ibid. The upper house meets only for two days every three weeks. O. Oracheva, ‘Democracy and federalism in post-communist Russia’, paper presented at the conference, The Fall of Communism in Europe: Ten Years On, May 14–17, 2001, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, p. 7. Kempton, ‘Russian federalism’, 219. L. M. Karapetyan, Federalizm i Prava Narodov (Moscow: PRIOR, 1999), p. 49. Forty-four articles of the Bashkortostan constitution contradicted the Russian Constitution. I. A. Umnova, Konstitutsionnye Osnovy Sovremennovo

in Federalism and democratisation in Russia
The nature of the development-security industry
Jenny H. Peterson

dominated conflict analysis. Often referred to as traditional or orthodox security, this school of thought is concerned with violence between states, with both the nature of threats and the responses to them being conceived of in military terms (Ayoob, 1991). This classical view is based largely on a realist paradigm which sees the international system as inherently anarchic and in which the nation-state remains as the primary unit of analysis. With the fall of communism and the emergence of a unipolar system, notions of security began to change. Initially, it was assumed

in Building a peace economy?
David Bruce MacDonald

Medjugorje as a sign of peace, Serbian sources excavated mass graves of executed Serbs from the Second World War. In this way, the so-called region of peace was portrayed as being stained with blood. See Paul Mojzes, Yugoslavian Inferno: Ethnoreligious Warfare in the Balkans (New York: Continuum, 1994) p. 47. 97 Mojzes, Yugoslavian Inferno, p. 29. 98 Meštrović, Goreta, and Letica, The Road from Paradise, p. xiii. 99 Stjepan Meštrović, Slaven Letica, and Miroslav Goreta, Habits of the Balkan Heart: Social Character and the Fall of Communism (College Station, TX: Texas A

in Balkan holocausts?