Turkey's involvement in the Gulf War in 1991 paved the way for the country's acceptance into the European Union. This book traces that process, and in the first part looks at Turkey's foreign policy in the 1990s, considering the ability of the country to withstand the repercussions of the fall of communism. It focuses on Turkey's achievement in halting and minimising the effects of the temporary devaluation in its strategic importance that resulted from the waning of the Cold War and the disintegration of the Soviet Union; the skilful way in which Turkey avoided becoming embroiled in the ethnic upheavals in Central Asia, the Balkans and the Middle East; and the development of a continued policy of closer integration into the European and western worlds. Internal politics are the focus of the second part of the book, addressing the curbing of the Kurdish revolt, the economic gains made and the strengthening of civil society. The book goes on to analyse the prospects for Turkey in the twenty-first century, in the light of the possible integration into Europe, which may leave the country's leadership free to deal effectively with domestic issues.
The fall of the Berlin Wall in November 1989 led, in rapid succession over the next two years, to German unification, Baltic state independence, the dissolution of the Soviet Union and its replacement by Russia and other successor countries, the fall of communism in Central and Eastern Europe, and the dissolution of the Warsaw Pact. Capitalism, liberalised world trade and new electronics technology seemed to have carried the day. The hope of the countries concerned for a new Marshall Plan was not met, but a new European Bank for Reconstruction and Development was meant to fulfil a similar function. In 1993, the European Union (EU) concluded a European Economic Area agreement with various European Free Trade Association countries, tying them closer to it in the areas of trade and investment. The disintegration of Yugoslavia beginning in 1990, and the several wars it led to, posed serious challenges to the EU and the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), apart from signifying a tragedy for the people of the region.
there any connection between the 1991 war in the Gulf and the December 1999 EU Helsinki decision to invite Turkey to negotiate its entrance into the Union? Perhaps not a direct one, but one cannot fail to see that the 1990s were marked by crossroads, developments, events, etc., which linked the two dates, perhaps even led to the December 1999 decision. This study will attempt to analyze these years.
The 1990s were successful years as regards Ankara’s foreign relations. Turkey manifested its ability to withstand the repercussions of the fallof
the agreement in question? Is it possible to be a free rider under the accord?
Finally, the social, cultural, political and economic characteristics of
the implementing country are assumed to influence implementation
Implementing international environmental commitments
in post-Communist societies
From the initiation of large-scale industrialisation in the Soviet
Union in the 1930s and until the fallofCommunism, the environmental policy performance of that country – and of the whole
Eastern Bloc – was notoriously poor
fallofcommunism the German Republikaner were the inspiration of several short-lived initiatives in countries such as Hungary, Ukraine
and Latvia, with which Schönhuber was also in contact. The contacts with
the only successful East European Republikaner, the Czechoslovak (and later
Czech) Sdruzeni pro Republiku – Republikanska strana Ceskoslovenska
(Association for the Republic – Republican Party of Czechoslovakia), were
terminated in 1993 due to the increasing anti-German rhetoric of its leader
Miroslav Sladek9 (Dvoraková 2000; Kopecky 1999).
. In our many discussions, Naso rarely mentioned his wife Frosina, who was still living and working
in Athens. This conspicuous silence can be attributed to a society still dominated
by masculine mores where, as in Çajupi’s poem, the majority of work is effectively
Silenced border crossings in southern Albania
done by women but the ‘fruits’ of that labour are mostly enjoyed by the husbands
without giving due recognition to the contribution of their wives.
A few years after the fallofcommunism, Naso and Frosina – whose marriage was
arranged by their parents
gazeta (13 May, 2001).
11 J. A. Corwin, RFE/RL Russian Federation Report, 2:9 (March 7, 2001), 5.
12 O. Oracheva, ‘Democracy and federalism in post-communist Russia (relations
between Moscow and the regions in the Russian Federation)’, paper presented
at the conference, ‘The FallofCommunism in Europe: Ten Years On’, May
14–17, 2001, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, p. 11.
13 ‘Presidential administration’s Samoilov on seven representatives’, EWI Russian
Regional Report, 5:30 (August 2, 2000), 4–6.
14 See, E. Teague, ‘Putin reforms the federal system’, and R. Sakwa
Stepan, ‘Federalism and democracy’, 27.
The upper house meets only for two days every three weeks.
O. Oracheva, ‘Democracy and federalism in post-communist Russia’, paper
presented at the conference, The FallofCommunism in Europe: Ten Years On,
May 14–17, 2001, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, p. 7.
Kempton, ‘Russian federalism’, 219.
L. M. Karapetyan, Federalizm i Prava Narodov (Moscow: PRIOR, 1999), p. 49.
Forty-four articles of the Bashkortostan constitution contradicted the Russian
I. A. Umnova, Konstitutsionnye Osnovy Sovremennovo
dominated conflict analysis. Often referred to as traditional or orthodox
security, this school of thought is concerned with violence between states,
with both the nature of threats and the responses to them being conceived of
in military terms (Ayoob, 1991). This classical view is based largely on a
realist paradigm which sees the international system as inherently anarchic
and in which the nation-state remains as the primary unit of analysis. With
the fallofcommunism and the emergence of a unipolar system, notions of
security began to change. Initially, it was assumed
Medjugorje as a sign of peace, Serbian sources
excavated mass graves of executed Serbs from the Second World War. In this way, the
so-called region of peace was portrayed as being stained with blood. See Paul Mojzes,
Yugoslavian Inferno: Ethnoreligious Warfare in the Balkans (New York: Continuum,
1994) p. 47.
97 Mojzes, Yugoslavian Inferno, p. 29.
98 Meštrović, Goreta, and Letica, The Road from Paradise, p. xiii.
99 Stjepan Meštrović, Slaven Letica, and Miroslav Goreta, Habits of the Balkan Heart: Social
Character and the FallofCommunism (College Station, TX: Texas A