This chapter delves into the many ways in which British women doctors pressed for the development of an international movement for birth control and familyplanning, from the first attempt in 1928 to create an international organisation to the establishment of the International Planned Parenthood Federation in 1952.
In addition, this chapter pushes the transnational approach even further by showing how the circulation of actors and knowledge from Britain to France eased the creation of a
Women’s medicine explores the key role played by British female doctors in the
production and circulation of contraceptive knowledge and the handling of sexual
disorders between the 1920s and 1970s at the transnational level, taking France
as a point of comparison. This study follows the path of a set of women doctors
as they made their way through the predominantly male-dominated medical
landscape in establishing birth control and family planning as legitimate fields
of medicine. This journey encompasses their practical engagement with birth
control and later family planning clinics in Britain, their participation in the
development of the international movement of birth control and family planning
and their influence on French doctors. Drawing on a wide range of archived and
published medical materials, this study sheds light on the strategies British
female doctors used, and the alliances they made, to put forward their medical
agenda and position themselves as experts and leaders in birth control and
family planning research and practice.
Expanding Gender Norms to Marriage Drivers Facing Boys and Men in South Sudan
Michelle Lokot, Lisa DiPangrazio, Dorcas Acen, Veronica Gatpan, and Ronald Apunyo
of families’ plan for economic stability, though ‘at the centre of the quagmire is the conceptualization of the daughter as an economic commodity’ ( Huser, 2018 : 26). Cattle may be part of the bride price in some communities, which men often – though not exclusively – obtain through raiding ( Glowacki and Wrangham, 2015 ). Rising bride price has been linked to increases in cattle raiding ( Hudson and Matfess, 2017 ).
Our literature review yielded limited publicly available reports and evaluations on the impact of current or past efforts to address child marriage
-dominated medical landscape. They sought to establish the use of birth control – that is, any practices, methods, and devices that could prevent pregnancy – as a legitimate field of medicine. Alongside their work to medicalise and legitimise birth control, they promoted familyplanning, or the provision of contraceptive methods to plan and space births, and offered counselling on sexual disorders, fertility and sub-fertility. These areas of practice, which would become a new career path for many women doctors, emerged from women doctors’ experiences and encounters with patients
all, Jackson emphasised that ‘the woman's fertility was not disturbed by this method’ and that no ‘pelvic inflammatory conditions had developed’.
At the conference, Jackson also learnt of the existence of the two new plastic devices and was impressed by their seemingly good results. When she returned to Britain, she started fitting her patients with these new plastic devices. In 1963, she published a paper in FamilyPlanning that reviewed her experience with the Gräfenberg
I am writing about an important uncertainty affecting many women doctors working in familyplanning. As you will no doubt be aware many of us have acquired over the years considerable expertise in this field and there seems to be a strong possibility in light of the government proposals that this work will largely be taken over by General Practitioners of very varied training in familyplanning and of course mostly male.
It is also true that some hospitals are opening
[W]omen clients came to us because we were all women. Women doctors, women nurses, women running clinics.
From the opening of birth control clinics in the early 1920s to the FamilyPlanning Act in 1967, women have been central actors in the campaign for birth control and contraception in Britain
Oh this isn't so boring if you get your climax.
Joan Malleson, 1950s
During the interwar period and onwards, familyplanning centres expanded their birth control sessions into sexual advice, which became available primarily through the activities of women doctors in Britain. They set up advisory sessions on ‘sub-fertility’, which
The book explores the relationship between violence against women on one hand,
and the rights to health and reproductive health on the other. It argues that
violation of the right to health is a consequence of violence, and that (state)
health policies might be a cause of – or create the conditions for – violence
against women. It significantly contributes to feminist and international human
rights legal scholarship by conceptualising a new ground-breaking idea, violence
against women’s health (VAWH), using the Hippocratic paradigm as the backbone of
the analysis. The two dimensions of violence at the core of the book – the
horizontal, ‘interpersonal’ dimension and the vertical ‘state policies’
dimension – are investigated through around 70 decisions of domestic, regional
and international judicial or quasi-judicial bodies (the anamnesis). The concept
of VAWH, drawn from the anamnesis, enriches the traditional concept of violence
against women with a human rights-based approach to autonomy and a reflection on
the pervasiveness of patterns of discrimination (diagnosis). VAWH as theorised
in the book allows the reconceptualisation of states’ obligations in an
innovative way, by identifying for both dimensions obligations of result, due
diligence obligations, and obligations to progressively take steps (treatment).
The book eventually asks whether it is not international law itself that is the
ultimate cause of VAWH (prognosis).
In May 1958, and four years into the Algerian War of Independence, a revolt again appropriated the revolutionary and republican symbolism of the French Revolution by seizing power through a Committee of Public Safety. This book explores why a repressive colonial system that had for over a century maintained the material and intellectual backwardness of Algerian women now turned to an extensive programme of 'emancipation'. After a brief background sketch of the situation of Algerian women during the post-war decade, it discusses the various factors contributed to the emergence of the first significant women's organisations in the main urban centres. It was only after the outbreak of the rebellion in 1954 and the arrival of many hundreds of wives of army officers that the model of female interventionism became dramatically activated. The French military intervention in Algeria during 1954-1962 derived its force from the Orientalist current in European colonialism and also seemed to foreshadow the revival of global Islamophobia after 1979 and the eventual moves to 'liberate' Muslim societies by US-led neo-imperialism in Afghanistan and Iraq. For the women of Bordj Okhriss, as throughout Algeria, the French army represented a dangerous and powerful force associated with mass destruction, brutality and rape. The central contradiction facing the mobile socio-medical teams teams was how to gain the trust of Algerian women and to bring them social progress and emancipation when they themselves were part of an army that had destroyed their villages and driven them into refugee camps.