Author: Cameron Ross

Building on earlier work, this text combines theoretical perspectives with empirical work, to provide a comparative analysis of the electoral systems, party systems and governmental systems in the ethnic republics and regions of Russia. It also assesses the impact of these different institutional arrangements on democratization and federalism, moving the focus of research from the national level to the vitally important processes of institution building and democratization at the local level and to the study of federalism in Russia.

Cameron Ross

FAD3 10/17/2002 5:42 PM Page 29 3 Federalism and constitutional asymmetry As Taras notes, ‘Establishing a constitutional framework that sets out the political rules of the game and the institutions that allocate values in society is the most daunting challenge for a new regime’.1 For Maravall and di Tella, two features of constitutionalism are particularly important. First, constitutions seek to define, ‘the future substance as well as the form of politics by placing certain political, social and economic, rights beyond the reach of democratic uncertainty

in Federalism and democratisation in Russia
Open Access (free)
Cameron Ross

FAD8 10/17/2002 6:02 PM Page 137 8 Federalism under Putin In August 1991 Yeltsin created two new administrative bodies to keep the regions in check: presidential representatives and regional governors. Between 1991 and 1996 Yeltsin was able to maintain control over the governors through his powers of appointment. However, once Yeltsin relinquished these powers and governors were able to come to power via the ballot box (see chapter 6), he was forced to turn to his presidential representatives to win back control of the regions. As we noted in chapter 3 one

in Federalism and democratisation in Russia
Cameron Ross

FAD5 10/17/2002 5:44 PM Page 72 5 Fiscal federalism and socio-economic asymmetry He who controls the economy controls the polity. But who does control the purse strings in Russia, and how are federal funds distributed across the federation? To what degree have federal policies ameliorated the high levels of socio-economic asymmetry inherited from the USSR? To answer these questions we need to examine fiscal federalism taking into account both the formal structural aspects of the system and the more hidden informal practices. Fiscal federalism As Bradshaw

in Federalism and democratisation in Russia
Arthur B. Gunlicks

chap 2 27/5/03 11:53 am Page 53 2 Theory and constitutional framework of German federalism Introduction As in the case of the American states, the German Länder existed before the federation. But unlike the United States, there is no legal controversy in Germany over the role of the states as opposed to the “people” in creating the federation.1 Representatives from the Länder met at Herrenchiemsee in 1948 to draft the new constitution and formed the Parliamentary Council which negotiated with the Allies over the final text in 1949. The German Constitution

in The Länder and German federalism
Cameron Ross

FAD2 10/17/2002 5:41 PM Page 17 2 The Soviet legacy and Russian federalism, 1991–93 Russian federalism and the Soviet legacy According to the 1977 Constitution, ‘the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics’ was a ‘unified, federal, multinational state formed on the principle of socialist federalism’. The federation, which was established according to the dual principles of ethnicity and territory, encompassed fifteen ethnically defined union republics, twenty autonomous republics, eight autonomous oblasts, ten autonomous okrugs, and 159 territorially based

in Federalism and democratisation in Russia
Executive versus legislative power
Cameron Ross

FAD7 10/17/2002 6:01 PM Page 122 7 Federalism and political asymmetry: executive versus legislative power As we have noted, political institutions are of crucial importance during transitions to democracy, and for Mainwaring, among all the choices of institutions ‘none is more important than the system of government: presidential, semipresidential, parliamentary or some hybrid’.1 There is now a general consensus in the literature that parliamentary systems are more stable than presidential ones and that it is much easier to consolidate democracy in

in Federalism and democratisation in Russia
Regional elections and political parties
Cameron Ross

FAD6 10/17/2002 5:45 PM Page 92 6 Federalism and political asymmetry: regional elections and political parties Elections As we noted in chapter 1, ‘Competitive elections are one of the cornerstones of democracy. Without freely established political parties battling in honestly conducted elections, democracy by most definitions does not exist’.1 Since the adoption of the Russian Constitution in December 1993 Russian citizens have been given the opportunity to engage in numerous rounds of national and local level election campaigns. There have now been three

in Federalism and democratisation in Russia

This book provides an introduction to how the Länder (the sixteen states of Germany) function, not only within the country itself, but also within the wider context of Europe's political affairs. It looks at the Länder in the constitutional order of the country, as well as their political and administrative systems, and also discusses their organisation and administration, together with their financial administration. Finally, the book looks at the role of political parties and elections in the Länder, and considers the importance of their parliaments.

Open Access (free)
The German model of federalism
Arthur B. Gunlicks

chap 12 27/5/03 12:04 pm Page 385 12 Conclusion: the German model of federalism The German model The most commonly cited characteristic of American federalism is “dual federalism.” This refers to constitutionally delegated powers for the federal government and reserve powers for the states, with each level of government responsible for making, financing, implementing, and administering its own policies. In case of conflict, federal law is supreme so long as the federal government is authorized to act by the constitution. German federalism is also sometimes

in The Länder and German federalism