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This book explores the new applications of established theories or adapts theoretical approaches in order to illuminate behaviour in the field of food. It focuses on social processes at the downstream end of the food chain, processes of distribution and consumption. The book reviews the existing disciplinary approaches to understanding judgements about food taste. It suggests that the quality 'halal' is the result of a social and economic consensus between the different generations and cultures of migrant Muslims as distinct from the non-Muslim majority. Food quality is to be viewed in terms of emergent cognitive paradigms sustained within food product networks that encompass a wide range of social actors with a wide variety of intermediaries, professional and governmental. The creation of the Food Standards Agency (FSA) and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) occurred at a juncture when perceptions of policy failure were acknowledged at United Kingdom and European Union governmental levels. The book presents a case study of retailer-led food governance in the UK to examine how different 'quality logics' actually collide in the competitive world of food consumption and production. It argues that concerns around food safety were provoked by the emergence of a new food aesthetic based on 'relationalism' and 'embeddedness'. The book also argues that the study of the arguments and discourses deployed to criticise or otherwise qualify consumption is important to the political morality of consumption.

Discourses, contestation and alternative consumption
Roberta Sassatelli

chap 8 13/8/04 4:24 pm Page 176 8 The political morality of food: discourses, contestation and alternative consumption Roberta Sassatelli Anthropology and sociology have been keen to show that consumption is a social and moral field, and that consumer practices are part of an ongoing process of negotiation of social classifications and hierarchies. Food consumption in particular has been associated with symbolically mediated notions of order (Douglas and Isherwood 1979). We know that particular foods are identified with annual festivities, set apart for

in Qualities of food
Andrew McMeekin, Ken Green, Mark Tomlinson, and Vivien Walsh

writers, from a range of disciplines, including neoclassical economists, psychologists and socio-biologists. He concludes that biological and psychological perspectives, fitted into frameworks of evolutionary economics, have much to tell us about the formation of preferences, and economists should be open to such diverse approaches if they are to understand the relationship between innovation and demand. Chapter 6, by Mark Tomlinson and Andrew McMeekin, looks at the routine nature of food consumption. The existence of consumption routines is particularly significant for

in Innovation by demand
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Some key issues in understanding its competitive production and regulation
Terry Marsden

chap 6 13/8/04 4:23 pm Page 129 6 Theorising food quality: some key issues in understanding its competitive production and regulation Terry Marsden Introduction Recent debates concerning food quality offer an important window on the changing nature of broader social, political and economic relations. Not least, this has reinforced a more serious concern with understanding food consumption processes; through more theorisation and conceptualisation of social and natural factors in the context of wider consumption trends and processes (see Goodman 2002). In

in Qualities of food
Mark Tomlinson and Andrew McMeekin

operationalise in what follows by modelling the influence of social context on routine consumption behaviour. Data and methodology The data: the Health and Lifestyle Survey The data were initially collected in 1984 and 1985 to form a random sample of 9,003 respondents aged eighteen or over and resident in households in Great Britain. The data collected included many variables related to the area of consumption and lifestyles. For example, detailed data on food consumption, smoking, alcohol consumption, hobbies, exercise, etc., as well as 80 Innovation by demand socio

in Innovation by demand
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An interdisciplinary approach to the study of demand and its role in innovation

This book brings together a range of sociologists and economists to study the role of demand and consumption in the innovative process. Starting with a broad conceptual overview of ways that the sociological and economics literatures address issues of innovation, demand and consumption, it goes on to offer different approaches to the economics of demand and innovation through an evolutionary framework, before reviewing how consumption fits into evolutionary models of economic development. The book then looks at food consumption as an example of innovation by demand, including an examination of the dynamic nature of socially constituted consumption routines. It includes an analysis of how African Americans use consumption to express collective identity and discusses the involvement of consumers in innovation, focusing on how consumer needs may be incorporated in the design of high-tech products. It also argues for the need to build an economic sociology of demand that goes from micro-individual through to macro-structural features.

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Relational reflexivity in the ‘alternative’ food movement
Jonathan Murdoch and Mara Miele

economic conventions from those that prioritise a wider range of qualities it is possible to show that patterns of development in food consumption are now diverse and multiple rather than singular and uniform (Miele and Murdoch 2003). That is, the food sector is not headed towards ever-greater standardisation but rather towards growing divergence in the kinds of products available. Yet, while the contemporary food market may be able to accommodate (at least temporarily) the various commodities emerging from differing parts of the food sector (Ritzer 2001), it is likely

in Qualities of food
Analysing the linkages and exploring possibilities for improving health and wellbeing
Warren Smit

, Kitwe in Zambia, and Epworth, part of the Harare city-region in Zimbabwe), as well as other work undertaken by the African Centre for Cities on health, food and urban development in Cape Town (South Africa). The survey findings drawn on in this chapter include workshops and interviews in Cape Town, a food retail survey in Kisumu, and food consumption surveys in Kisumu and in Kitwe. First, the chapter examines the food environments of African cities, with a focus on the built environment, highlighting the diverse range of food outlets and complex patterns of food

in Urban transformations and public health in the emergent city
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Environmental justice and citizen science in a post-truth age
Editors: Thom Davies and Alice Mah

This book examines the relationship between environmental justice and citizen science, focusing on enduring issues and new challenges in a post-truth age. Debates over science, facts, and values have always been pivotal within environmental justice struggles. For decades, environmental justice activists have campaigned against the misuses of science, while at the same time engaging in community-led citizen science. However, post-truth politics has threatened science itself. This book makes the case for the importance of science, knowledge, and data that are produced by and for ordinary people living with environmental risks and hazards. The international, interdisciplinary contributions range from grassroots environmental justice struggles in American hog country and contaminated indigenous communities, to local environmental controversies in Spain and China, to questions about “knowledge justice,” citizenship, participation, and data in citizen science surrounding toxicity. The book features inspiring studies of community-based participatory environmental health and justice research; different ways of sensing, witnessing, and interpreting environmental injustice; political strategies for seeking environmental justice; and ways of expanding the concepts and forms of engagement of citizen science around the world. While the book will be of critical interest to specialists in social and environmental sciences, it will also be accessible to graduate and postgraduate audiences. More broadly, the book will appeal to members of the public interested in social justice issues, as well as community members who are thinking about participating in citizen science and activism. Toxic Truths includes distinguished contributing authors in the field of environmental justice, alongside cutting-edge research from emerging scholars and community activists.

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Quality and processes of qualification
Mark Harvey, Andrew McMeekin, and Alan Warde

interactions between agricultures and food consumption. Transfers from one ecology to another involved both a cultivation and a consumption transformation, new agricultural processes and hybrids, as well as new cuisines and culinary hybrids. It is difficult to think of quality transformations in other domains that involve this kind of complex interaction with ecologies, and it is for this reason that ecology contributes to the specificities of food quality. One of the key alterations in the relationship between cultivated ecologies and food provisioning and consumption

in Qualities of food