Nazanin Zadeh-Cummings
Lauren Harris

, 2019; Jasper in Cato, 2019 ). Health-related items that have been delayed due to the sanctions exemptions process include reproductive health kits, heaters for immunisation clinics, ambulance parts, refrigerators, wheelchairs, crutches, walking sticks and walkers, glasses and hearing aids; food security programmes have seen delivery of irrigation and agricultural equipment that is time-sensitive due to food production seasons postponed in exemptions ( UN PoE, 2019 : 364–69). One interviewee expressed the view that projects have become simpler and are undertaken in

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Corporations, Celebrities and the Construction of the Entrepreneurial Refugee Woman
Annika Bergman Rosamond
Catia Gregoratti

Syrian female refugees have been propelled into work due to the reduction of aid and the heavy surveillance placed on Syrian men’s illegal work ( Ritchie, 2018 ). Women have taken up both home-based work such as food production, and, less often, non-home-based work as housemaids, shop assistants or factory workers ( Ritchie, 2017 ). An international solution for the crisis of refugee livelihoods and the pressure that the influx of refugees was placing on host communities was attempted in

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)

This book explores the new applications of established theories or adapts theoretical approaches in order to illuminate behaviour in the field of food. It focuses on social processes at the downstream end of the food chain, processes of distribution and consumption. The book reviews the existing disciplinary approaches to understanding judgements about food taste. It suggests that the quality 'halal' is the result of a social and economic consensus between the different generations and cultures of migrant Muslims as distinct from the non-Muslim majority. Food quality is to be viewed in terms of emergent cognitive paradigms sustained within food product networks that encompass a wide range of social actors with a wide variety of intermediaries, professional and governmental. The creation of the Food Standards Agency (FSA) and the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) occurred at a juncture when perceptions of policy failure were acknowledged at United Kingdom and European Union governmental levels. The book presents a case study of retailer-led food governance in the UK to examine how different 'quality logics' actually collide in the competitive world of food consumption and production. It argues that concerns around food safety were provoked by the emergence of a new food aesthetic based on 'relationalism' and 'embeddedness'. The book also argues that the study of the arguments and discourses deployed to criticise or otherwise qualify consumption is important to the political morality of consumption.

Patrick Doyle

challenge for Irish co-operators lay in the execution of their duties at a moment of international crisis. Horace Plunkett ‘had from the first seen that food supplies would be one of the keys to victory, and he had been anxious for the IAOS to use its powers to increase food production in Ireland’. 13 In a presidential address to the IAOS in October 1915 Plunkett pointed out that in normal circumstances ‘the man in the street, as the final authority in the mind of the politician is not inaptly called, does not bother his head about agriculture’. As long as this

in Civilising rural Ireland
Open Access (free)
Relational reflexivity in the ‘alternative’ food movement
Jonathan Murdoch
Mara Miele

greater product standardisation, so that differing foods are rendered more alike in terms of their manufactured content. This process of standardisation affects not just production, processing and retailing, but eating itself, so that meals now carry their industrial properties into the stomachs of modern consumers.1 Critics of the industrial approach to food provisioning argue that food quality is compromised both by the growing homogenisation of foodstuffs and by the increased health risks that emerge from within overly industrialised food production processes. The

in Qualities of food
Open Access (free)
Sustainability, the arts and the watermill
Jayne Elisabeth Archer
Howard Thomas
, and
Richard Marggraf Turley

communities and cultures. We find that, just as much as the surrender of common ground to successive waves of enclosures, the loss of the watermill as a centre of food production – owned and operated by and for the community – marks a fault line, a profound trauma in British history. Industrialisation replaced the grain mill with the mills of manufacture – cotton, paper, wool, steel, as elegised by Richard Jefferies and celebrated by J. M. W. Turner (Jefferies 1880; Rodner 1997). The mill is a recurrent mystical symbol in the writings of William Blake and even has a walk

in Literature and sustainability
David Barling

a part of a comprehensive ‘farm to fork’ recasting of food safety, including the aforementioned reorganisation and recasting of European food laws. In addition, the EC is beginning to frame a policy link between food safety and standards and in turn food production supports in terms of food quality, connecting food production with consumption and vice-versa. The role of food provenance, as an indicator of quality and market value, is a feature of the linking of production to consumption. The importance of the competitiveness of UK farming and food is another key

in Qualities of food
Open Access (free)
Some key issues in understanding its competitive production and regulation
Terry Marsden

conventional players and ‘alternative’ food actors are situated. A growing aspect of these competitive relations in supply chains concerns the actual use of quality conventions and how these begin to reshape the allocation of economic and political power in food supply chains. Usage can then, in turn, affect aspects of rural development at the level of food production and aspects of food consumption in the urban realm. Quality definitions and conventions can therefore reflect and redistribute aspects of economic and social power (Marsden 2003). It becomes necessary

in Qualities of food
Discourses, contestation and alternative consumption
Roberta Sassatelli

identify a bunch of heterogeneous practices and discourses, stretching across the developed world. These consumer practices and consumption discourses herald a critique of (some forms of) consumption and propose alternative lifestyles. Their supporters chap 8 13/8/04 182 4:24 pm Page 182 Qualities of food may be right in saying that we can take them as indicators of a quiet, slow cultural revolution which has to do with the fears about capitalist industrial methods of food production. Certainly, alternative food consumption is an important locus for

in Qualities of food

By expanding the geographical scope of the history of violence and war, this volume challenges both Western and state-centric narratives of the decline of violence and its relationship to modernity. It highlights instead similarities across early modernity in terms of representations, legitimations, applications of, and motivations for violence. It seeks to integrate methodologies of the study of violence into the history of war, thereby extending the historical significance of both fields of research. Thirteen case studies outline the myriad ways in which large-scale violence was understood and used by states and non-state actors throughout the early modern period across Africa, Asia, the Americas, the Atlantic, and Europe, demonstrating that it was far more complex than would be suggested by simple narratives of conquest and resistance. Moreover, key features of imperial violence apply equally to large-scale violence within societies. As the authors argue, violence was a continuum, ranging from small-scale, local actions to full-blown war. The latter was privileged legally and increasingly associated with states during early modernity, but its legitimacy was frequently contested and many of its violent forms, such as raiding and destruction of buildings and crops, could be found in activities not officially classed as war.