Open Access (free)
Lewis Hine’s Photographs of Refugees for the American Red Cross, 1918–20
Sonya de Laat

were framed as ideal humanitarian subjects. I then explore a set of photographs Hine made between November 1918 and April 1919, after the armistice was signed. As a photographer concerned with social uplift, Hine’s pictures contributed to a sentimental education meant to include refugees among those worthy of care. This attempt was ultimately muted by the photographs being virtually unused. The final section explores how the refugee subject was eventually displaced in The Red Cross Magazine over the course of 1919–20. This displacement diminished opportunities to

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
The ambivalence of queer visibility in audio- visual archives
Dagmar Brunow

 175 10 NAMING, SHAMING, FRAMING? The ambivalence of queer visibility in audio-​visual archives* Dag m ar  Brunow T his chapter looks at the dynamics of visibility and vulnerability in audio-​ visual heritage. It analyses how film archives in Sweden and the UK, following their diversity policies, address and mobilise the notion of queer, recognising and making visible queer lives, history and cinema, and how they negotiate the risks of increased visibility. In this approach, the archive is positioned as an object of analysis, shifting the focus on the archive

in The power of vulnerability
Paul Currion

Fund in October 2010. Innovation funds, innovation labs and innovation studies subsequently proliferated, and by 2016 innovation had become important enough to be adopted as one of the central themes of the World Humanitarian Summit. The ALNAP research specifically framed innovation as a response to external threats, stating that ‘[i]f established aid organisations fail to prioritise innovations, they are in danger of losing popular support and being overtaken by new types of relief organisations

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Digital Bodies, Data and Gifts
Kristin Bergtora Sandvik

framed as ‘technical’ and/or ‘good – rather than political. Most scholarship on sensor technologies and self-tracking devices focuses on data collected voluntarily by individuals, for their own purposes. In contrast, my concern is how data collected in a setting where there are enormous power differences may be monetised by combining it with other people’s data to make population-wide correlations and inferences that have market value ( Nissenbaum and Patterson, 2016 ). No

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
James Baldwin, William F. Buckley, Jr., and the 1965 Cambridge Debate
Daniel Robert McClure

The 1965 debate at Cambridge University between James Baldwin and William F. Buckley, Jr., posed the question: “Has the American Dream been achieved at the Expense of the American Negro?” Within the contours of the debate, Baldwin and Buckley wrestled with the ghosts of settler colonialism and slavery in a nation founded on freedom and equality. Framing the debate within the longue durée, this essay examines the deep cultural currents related to the American racial paradox at the height of the Civil Rights movement. Underscoring the changing language of white resistance against black civil rights, the essay argues that the Baldwin and Buckley debate anticipated the ways the U.S. would address racial inequality in the aftermath of the civil rights era and the dawn of neoliberalism in the 1970s.

James Baldwin Review
Lindsey R. Swindall

Last year, in the dispatch “There Is No Texting at James Baldwin’s Table,” I began to assess the ways in which audiences were engaging with Baldwin’s writing at several public discussions that I co-facilitated with NYC actor/comedian Grant Cooper. Based on the initial reaction to two five-part Baldwin conversations at a high school and middle school in Manhattan, I posited that a need for meaningful communion is drawing people to discuss the writer. As I wrote that article, I was busy scheduling seven new Baldwin discussions in communities across New Jersey and another five-part series in Manhattan. Having completed those sessions, I am pleased to report that Baldwin’s welcome table is indeed a powerful vehicle for engaging in impactful dialogue. This dispatch will demonstrate that discussing Baldwin not only opened an avenue for productive sharing but went further by inspiring people to ask how they could contribute to hastening positive social and personal transformation. Three questions will frame this analysis of putting the welcome table into practice: How many people want to sit at James Baldwin’s table? Can conversations about James Baldwin sustain more “welcome table moments”? Can these interactions create a sense of kinship that deepens personal interaction in the digital age?

James Baldwin Review
Fabien Provost

In contemporary forensic medicine, in India, the label of complete autopsy applies to a whole range of post-mortem examinations which can present consid- erable differences in view of the intellectual resources, time, personnel and material means they involve. From various sources available in India and elsewhere, stems the idea that, whatever the type of case and its apparent obviousness, a complete autopsy implies opening the abdomen, the thorax and the skull and dissecting the organs they contain. Since the nineteenth century, procedural approaches of complete autopsies have competed with a practical sense of completeness which requires doctors to think their cases according to their history. Relying on two case studies observed in the frame of an ethnographic study of eleven months in medical colleges of North India, the article suggests that the practical completeness of autopsies is attained when all aspects of the history of the case are made sense of with regard to the observation of the body. Whereas certain autopsies are considered obvious and imply a reduced amount of time in the autopsy room, certain others imply successive redefinitions of what complete implies and the realisation of certain actions which would not have been performed otherwise.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Open Access (free)
Jeffrey Flynn

the present. Together these books reveal that there is no single ‘humanitarian lens’ and that the question of how to frame human suffering, both effectively and ethically, has been debated ever since the pain of others could be captured on camera. Of course, the visual culture of humanitarianism predates the invention of photography (officially announced in France in 1839). Other visual technologies were used during earlier episodes in the long history of Western humanitarianism to depict

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
An Interview with Rainer Schlösser, Spokesperson of the Association of the Red Cross Museums in Germany (Arbeitsgemeinschaft der deutschen Rotkreuz-Museen)
Sönke Kunkel

the whole first floor available for our exhibits. The centerpiece of our museum is the permanent exhibit which documents the history of the German Red Cross movement through the times, largely by situating it in the context of its international connections. We also do contemporary exhibits each year, usually framed around specific anniversaries. In 2019, for example, we had an exhibit commemorating the centenary of the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies. Other exhibits have focused on the history of Red Cross posters or the Geneva

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
The Politics of Infectious Disease
Duncan McLean and Michaël Neuman

contribution Jeffrey Flynn reviews two books, Humanitarian Photography: A History (2015) and The Biafran War and Postcolonial Humanitarianism: Spectacles of Suffering (2017). While his commentary on ethical questions over the use of images is particularly salient today, almost as striking are his observations on how the challenge of framing human suffering ‘has been debated ever since the pain of others could be captured on camera’. The pitfalls of humanitarian imagery are thus noted, as are

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs