Open Access (free)
Terrell Carver

Introduction Like all concepts in political theory, gender has a history. Unlike most of these concepts, though, the history of gender is comparatively short. The term itself originated in the nineteenth century, arising in the context of descriptive and diagnostic social sciences of human behaviour. It was only adopted into political theory, as a result of a political process of struggle, about 100

in Political concepts
Open Access (free)
Conceptual links to institutional machineries
Kathleen Staudt

40 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORKS 2 Gender mainstreaming: conceptual links to institutional machineries kathleen staudt We enter the new millennium with a quarter-century of experience in reflection and practice about women and subsequently gender in development. This experience builds on the voices of many diverse people who share stakes in and support a broad definition of development, used here to mean the enhancement of human capacity in a world that sustains, rather than undermines, its natural resources.1 Such enhancement can hardly occur in a world lacking good

in Mainstreaming gender, democratizing the state?
Megan Daigle, Sarah Martin, and Henri Myrttinen

. In these spaces, the intersectional threats – that is, compounding and distinctive forms of marginalisation and risk 2 – faced by non-white (especially local) staff, those of diverse sexual orientations, gender identities and expressions and sex characteristics (SOGIESC) or those with disabilities are often not factored in. Conversely, threats to (white) women staff are cast as a kind of ‘stranger danger’ – emanating from non-white locals and militant actors rather than

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Shirin M. Rai

56 DISCIPLINES 4 Gender Studies shirin m. rai In order to explore feminist perspectives on democratization we need to understand both feminist frameworks and methodologies. This chapter outlines what a feminist framework might be and then uses this perspective to analyse feminist engagements with the theory and practice of democratization. Democratization can be defined as the process of ‘making democratic’ regimes, practices and discourses of public power. Luckham and White (1996b: 2–8) have identified four areas of inquiry for democratization analysts: (1

in Democratization through the looking-glass
Open Access (free)
Anne McClintock and H. Rider Haggard
Laura Chrisman

chapter2 21/12/04 11:09 am Page 39 2 Gendering imperialism: Anne McClintock and H. Rider Haggard Gayatri Spivak’s work on nineteenth-century imperialist literature directs feminist analysis to the narrative dynamics of human reproduction and production.1 She examines the codification of women as racial reproducers, and its relation to the conception of women as imperial producers of human subjectivity itself. Exciting though this direction is, feminist critics also need to further explore how economic production directly informs, and generates, literary

in Postcolonial contraventions
Catherine Akurut

, 2017 : 4), the actual number of victims is presumed to be high ( Misra, 2015 : 2). Low reporting and help-seeking are primarily influenced by prevailing societal gender perceptions about men and masculinity, which makes it less likely for male victims to report or speak about their experiences ( Féron, 2017b ). Javaid (2016 : 287) finds that men find it difficult to expose themselves as experiencers of atrocities that are seen to primarily affect women

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Surveillance and transgender bodies in a post-9/ 11 era of neoliberalism
Christine Quinan

undocumented immigrants, and the implementation of x-ray scanning technologies in airports and prisons typically do not cite explicit concerns with transgender populations. But because these policing practices are often concerned with individuals who appear to be fraudulent or deceptive, gender-nonconforming people – culturally constructed as concealing something

in Security/ Mobility
Open Access (free)
Debatable lands and passable boundaries
Aileen Christianson

4 Gender and nation: debatable lands and passable boundaries AILEEN CHRISTIANSON ‘Debatable lands’ and ‘passable boundaries’: both concepts are emblematic of the kind of inevitably shifting, multi-dimensional perspectives that are found in any consideration of nation and gender.1 Homi K. Bhabha writes of the ‘ambivalent margin of the nation-space’ and ‘the ambivalent, antagonistic perspective of nation as narration’ (1990a: 4). These ‘ambivalent margins’ are contained in the Scottish metaphor of the Debatable Land. Originally the term was for that area ‘holdin

in Across the margins
Institutional mechanisms for the advancement of women
Editor: Shirin M. Rai

The role of national machineries, as a way to promote the status of women, acquired international relevance during the World Conference on the International Women's Year, in Mexico City in 1975. This book reflects Division for the Advancement of Women's (DAW) long-standing interest in the area of national machineries, bringing together the experiences, research and insights of experts. The first part of the book sets out the major issues facing national machineries at the conceptual level. It reflects upon five aspects of democratization: devolution or decentralization; the role of political parties; monitoring and auditing systems; and the importance of increasing the presence of women within institutions of the state and government. The second part is a comparative analysis and sets out the major issues facing national machineries at the political level. A combination of factors, including civil society, state bodies and political actors, need to come together for national machineries to function effectively in the interest of gender equality. Next comes the 'lessons learned' by national machineries in mainstreaming gender. National machineries should have an achievable agenda, an important part of which must be 'a re-definition of gender issues. The third part contains case studies that build upon the specific experiences of national machineries in different countries. The successful experience of Nordic countries in gender mainstreaming is also discussed.

Tami Amanda Jacoby

(homeland) from external military threat. The accompanying script of home front (safety) versus battlefield (warfare) as respectively feminized and masculinized is a powerful interface of discourses and practices that designate particular roles to men and women in conflict zones. 1 However, upon consideration of gender as a major analytical category, the real landscape of war and national security is often

in Redefining security in the Middle East