The volume explores a question that sheds light on the contested, but largely cooperative, nature of Arctic governance in the post-Cold War period: How do power relations matter – and how have they mattered – in shaping cross-border cooperation and diplomacy in the Arctic? Through carefully selected case studies – from Russia’s role in the Arctic Council to the diplomacy of indigenous peoples’ organisations – this book seeks to shed light on how power performances are enacted constantly to shore up Arctic cooperation in key ways. The conceptually driven nature of the enquiry makes the book appropriate reading for courses in international relations and political geography, while the carefully selected case studies lend themselves to courses on Arctic politics.
Sweden is seen as a forerunner in environmental and ecological policy. This book is about policies and strategies for ecologically rational governance, and uses the Swedish case study to ask whether or not it is possible to move from a traditional environmental policy to a broad, integrated pursuit of sustainable development, as illustrated through the ‘Sustainable Sweden’ programme. It begins by looking at the spatial dimensions of ecological governance, and goes on to consider the integration and effectiveness of sustainable development policies. The book analyses the tension between democracy and sustainable development, which has a broader relevance beyond the Swedish model, to other nation states as well as the European Union as a whole. It offers the latest word in advanced implementation of sustainable development.
‘Nested enterprises’? Spatial
dimensions of ecological governance
Do the twain ever meet? ‘Natural’ and ‘man-made’ systems and
the problem of scale
The nature–society interface: different scales, problems of fit,
Space is of central concern to rational ecological governance.
Environmental problems and resource management issues cross
the man-made scales of local, regional or national governments.
The question thus becomes how ‘to negotiate a better fit’ in
responding to very complex ecological challenges
Democracy and ecological
governance – a balancing act
Sustainability and democracy: a political dilemma
Legitimising the balance between sustainability and autonomy;
the need for democratic politics
As pointed out in Chapter 1, this book builds on the normative
argument that ecologically rational governance must strive for
sustainability within the limits set by democracy and individual
autonomy. The relationship among these values is quite complex.
On the one hand, effective and in the longer term successful
Governing in common – integration
and effectiveness in ecological
Specialisation or integration. Organising principles of ecological
governance for sustainability
From environment to sustainable development; the quest for
effectiveness and integration
The first decades of environmental policy in Sweden were characterised by an amalgamation of different governmental units
dealing with aspects of the environmental issue into a recognisable sectoral policy domain. This was how SEPA came to be a
Up or down with the ecology cycle?
Strategies for temporally rational
Political terms and ecological cycles
Next budget and next election; dominant time spans in politics
From the early nineteenth century onwards, the dominant political view of time was one of continuous ‘progress’ with the state
at the centre of change (Ekengren 1998:30). This linear conception of time is, however, just one possible view. Political time can
also be seen as (series of) distinct events or as connected points
Non-state actors and the quest for
authority in Arctic governance
The modern state, as discussed in Chapter 1, can be considered a relative newcomer to the cross-border politics of the Arctic region. However,
states have featured prominently in the preceding two chapters. We have
come to see how advantageous positions earned by/granted to states
vis-à-vis other states matter for shaping the rules of the road in Arctic
cooperative governance –and ultimately shape outcomes. In this chapter,
I seek to broaden the net to explore the positions of key non
environmental awareness (Epstein, 2008).
This book is designed to give us insight into how power relations
have been important to structuring and sustaining cross-border Arctic
cooperation and cooperative governance of the region. Taking a close
look at power necessitates jostling and unpacking established narratives
about regional history and key actors. This chapter, however, aims to provide readers less familiar with Arctic settings with important19background
and, therefore, draws upon established narratives and classifications that
norms exert influence over
behaviour in cross-border relations requires reconceptualising the space
of global governance as more than a dynamic, inclusive, vast network of
governance. Rather, we need to consider how delimited and ‘local’ the
meeting places of cross-border politics –what we can term global governance policy fields –frequently become.
This chapter examines Russia’s engagement in the Arctic Council over
time to see how its preferences are met (or not), and discusses what this
can tell us about the rules of the road in
nature of the post-Cold War international system (multipolar, concentric, anarchic) and the jumbled and untidy geopolitical imaginings of a
new, arguably more chaotic, world order.
As discussed in Chapter 1, Arctic governance is marked by a number
of initiatives that have been initially promoted by ‘non-great-power’
states in the international system (or indeed by indigenous peoples’
Theorising Arctic hierarchies 59
organisations, NGOs and other sectors of civil society). These include
‘the Finnish Initiative’, which became the AEPS