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Harold Wilson, Lyndon B. Johnson and Anglo-American relations ‘at the summit’, 1964–68

This book is based mainly on government sources, namely material from the White House, State Department, Foreign Office (FO), Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO), Prime Minister's Office (PREM) and Cabinet (CAB). Private papers consulted include those of Harold Wilson, Foreign Secretary George Brown and Undersecretary of State George Ball. The book explores a period of the Wilson-Johnson relationship. It considers the seven weeks from Wilson's election until he went to see Lyndon B. Johnson on 7-9 December, a formative period in which Britain cultivated American financial support and which saw pre-summit diplomacy over the NATO Multilateral Force (MLF). The book covers the summit in detail, examining the diplomatic exchanges over the Vietnam War, the British commitment East of Suez and the MLF, as well as the interplay of personality between Wilson and Johnson. By exploring the relationship of the two leaders in the years 1964-1968, it seeks to examine their respective attitudes to the Anglo-American relationship. The book then assesses the significance of an alleged Anglo-American strategic-economic 'deal', Wilson's 'Commonwealth Peace Mission' to Vietnam, and another Wilson visit to Washington. It also considers why the personal relationship between Johnson and Wilson suffered such strain when the Labour government 'dissociated' the UK from the latest American measures in Vietnam. Next, the book addresses the period from August 1966-September 1967, during which Wilson launched an intense but abortive effort to initiate peace negotiations over Vietnam, and London announced plans to withdraw from military bases East of Suez.

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-Governmental Organisations (NGOs), with tremendous resources and media power, should also alert our attention to the very real benefits to be gained by portraying oneself as the victim of aggression. Human Rights NGOs now dominate the international arena; by 1994, some 67 per cent of the European Union’s relief aid was channelled through such organisations. According to the International Red Cross, NGOs collectively disburse more money than the World Bank. One quarter of Oxfam’s £98 million budget comes from governmental sources, while in 2000 World Vision US gained 4 2441Introduction

in Balkan holocausts?
The European union’s policy in the field of arms export controls

transparency mechanisms (such as national reports on arms exports, the UN Register for Conventional Arms, etc.) or by non-governmental sources (such as the defence industry). The review and further development of the Code since its adoption reflect an increased Europeanisation of export policies. For example, a number of clarifications and agreements for practical implementation were made during the first two

in Rethinking European Union Foreign Policy

revenues stem from various non-governmental funds (e.g. the New Israel Fund and the Jewish Agency) or contributions, while 22.1 per cent indicated that more than 90 per cent of their budget relies on these sources. On the other hand, only 10.4 per cent claimed that more than half of their annual budget relies on governmental sources, and of these only 2.6 per cent reported that their entire budget derives from state or state-affiliated authorities. However, the most significant finding in this regard emerges from an analysis of the relationship between the year of

in The Israeli response to Jewish extremism and violence
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symbolising close bonds between the countries involved, but the dangers include the possibility that the leaders simply may not get along with one another as well as they might. 92 This study is based mainly on government sources, namely material from the White House (including President Johnson’s taped telephone conversations), State Department, Foreign Office (FO), Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO), Prime Minister’s Office

in A ‘special relationship’?
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employed in suppressing terror and the Kurdish uprising. In pursuit of a policy designed to deny PKK rebels geographical and human shelter, the army has burned down some 30 million acres of woodland in the past decade – 25 million acres in East Anatolia alone. Over 1,500 villages were razed to the ground to deny the PKK its human hinterland. Some set the figure at 3,478 residential areas, of which 905 are villages and 2,523 are hamlets, from which 401,328 people were evacuated. Conversely, government sources attributed this migration to economic reasons (35 percent

in Turkey: facing a new millennium

States was not exaggerated. David Bruce told the State Department on 2 February that a ‘high placed Labour government source’ had indicated that Wilson was ‘aggressive, uncompromising, and effective … completely overwhelming [the] critics … Wilson never looked better … in dealing with [an] internal Party problem’. 9 But the Prime Minister’s difficulty with supporting the American position in Vietnam intensified as the United

in A ‘special relationship’?

This section provides, in the style of a dictionary, explanations of significant political events, groupings and developments.

in The politics today companion to West European Politics