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A history of child development in Britain
Author: Bonnie Evans

This book explains the current fascination with autism by linking it to a longer history of childhood development. Drawing from a staggering array of primary sources, it traces autism back to its origins in the early twentieth century and explains why the idea of autism has always been controversial and why it experienced a 'metamorphosis' in the 1960s and 1970s. The book locates changes in psychological theory in Britain in relation to larger shifts in the political and social organisation of schools, hospitals, families and childcare. It explores how government entities have dealt with the psychological category of autism. The book looks in detail at a unique children's 'psychotic clinic' set up in London at the Maudsley Hospital in the 1950s. It investigates the crisis of government that developed regarding the number of 'psychotic' children who were entering the public domain when large long-stay institutions closed. The book focuses on how changes in the organisation of education and social services for all children in 1970 gave further support to the concept of autism that was being developed in London's Social Psychiatry Research Unit. It also explores how new techniques were developed to measure 'social impairment' in children in light of the Seebohm reforms of 1968 and other legal changes of the early 1970s. Finally, the book argues that epidemiological research on autism in the 1960s and 1970s pioneered at London's Institute of Psychiatry has come to define global attempts to analyse and understand what, exactly, autism is.

Nazanin Zadeh-Cummings and Lauren Harris

sanctioning and/or implementing governments, and (iv) opportunities for humanitarian collaboration with North Korean counterparts. The exemptions process covers aspects of actually applying for sanctions or, in the case of US citizens, travel exemption. Dealings with third parties considers business with entities like banks and suppliers. Interactions with sanctioning and/or implementing governments covers relationships and exchanges involving humanitarian organisations and government entities outside the DPRK. Opportunities for humanitarian collaboration with North Korean

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Perceiving, describing and modelling child development
Bonnie Evans

particular the concept of autism. The diagnostic practices required of English psychiatric epidemiology in the 1960s continue to influence contemporary theories and descriptions of autism and to affect the way that government entities have managed and assessed child populations in relation to psychology. This book locates changes in psychological theory in Britain in relation to larger shifts in the political

in The metamorphosis of autism
Open Access (free)
Environmental justice and citizen science in a post-truth age
Editors: Thom Davies and Alice Mah

This book examines the relationship between environmental justice and citizen science, focusing on enduring issues and new challenges in a post-truth age. Debates over science, facts, and values have always been pivotal within environmental justice struggles. For decades, environmental justice activists have campaigned against the misuses of science, while at the same time engaging in community-led citizen science. However, post-truth politics has threatened science itself. This book makes the case for the importance of science, knowledge, and data that are produced by and for ordinary people living with environmental risks and hazards. The international, interdisciplinary contributions range from grassroots environmental justice struggles in American hog country and contaminated indigenous communities, to local environmental controversies in Spain and China, to questions about “knowledge justice,” citizenship, participation, and data in citizen science surrounding toxicity. The book features inspiring studies of community-based participatory environmental health and justice research; different ways of sensing, witnessing, and interpreting environmental injustice; political strategies for seeking environmental justice; and ways of expanding the concepts and forms of engagement of citizen science around the world. While the book will be of critical interest to specialists in social and environmental sciences, it will also be accessible to graduate and postgraduate audiences. More broadly, the book will appeal to members of the public interested in social justice issues, as well as community members who are thinking about participating in citizen science and activism. Toxic Truths includes distinguished contributing authors in the field of environmental justice, alongside cutting-edge research from emerging scholars and community activists.

Ana María Carrillo

. This notion resulted in decreased support from the private sector and even government entities for institutes or laboratories producing vaccines. These institutions suffered a progressive deterioration as a result. This abandonment came to be felt at the Pasteur Institute in France, and at the Latin American institutes that followed its leadership. 65 In Mexico, the Institute of Hygiene reflected this abandonment

in The politics of vaccination
Fighting a tropical scourge, modernising the nation
Jaime Benchimol

nineteenth century. In 1977–78, all of the Mexican public institutes and laboratories that produced vaccines and reagents were merged into a single government entity, the Dirección General de Producción de Biológicos y Reactivos, which became the country's sole producer of such products. With this move, Carrillo says, Mexico became self-sufficient in the field, and by the end of the 1980s was exporting biological products to several Central and

in The politics of vaccination
Tribal identity, civic dislocation, and environmental health research
Elizabeth Hoover

Indians. Regardless of the citizenship rules applied by the tribal governments in Akwesasne, the concern was that outside government entities would work to discredit these ­affiliations – ­not because the community felt that this was true, or had any doubts about their own “Indianness,” but because past experiences, especially with the state government, have supported a concern that outsiders would use any tools at their disposal to disenfranchise the community. One of the fieldworkers, Loralee, described the scenario in terms of government programs that non

in Toxic truths