Building on earlier work, this text combines theoretical perspectives with empirical work, to provide a comparative analysis of the electoral systems, party systems and governmental systems in the ethnic republics and regions of Russia. It also assesses the impact of these different institutional arrangements on democratization and federalism, moving the focus of research from the national level to the vitally important processes of institution building and democratization at the local level and to the study of federalism in Russia.
The ‘defending democracy’ in Israel – a framework of analysis
within the deep sorrow that engulfed me something else was preying on my mind, yet, at that consequential moment, I found it hard to pin down. It was only a few days later that the picture began to become clear in my mind.
For a period of forty-seven years, from the day of its establishment to the day of the Prime Minister’s assassination, the State of Israel has been fighting on many fronts – including the ‘home front’ – in order to stabilise its governmentalsystem and try to fashion it after the exemplar of the democratic tradition. I, and many
interventions, especially at the political level. Women
councillors within the local governmentsystem are being
trained and retrained, so that they can play an effective role
in this field which they have only recently entered.
Autonomy or mainstreaming? Dilemmas for a national
The checklist against which the Ugandan case has been
evaluated points to the dilemma that faces many national
machineries for gender equality. Should they be separate
entities or should they be ‘mainstreamed’? As separate
entities, such institutions can easily be isolated and
. Indeed, this is the consequence of democratic pressures for
greater state spending and involvement in solutions to society’s ills.
Thus this critique of the modern state becomes a critique of some aspects of
modern mass democracy.
Major characteristics of the state
Whatever the particular style of the
state, its philosophical underpinnings, or the governmentalsystem that
directs it, a number of features
‘democracy’ then what value can be attached to the word as an
analytical tool? One must question, however, Bernard Crick’s
assertion, in his In Defence of Politics (1962), that politics
primarily takes place only in democratic systems of government. Politics can
take place under any form of governmentalsystem, as it involves a struggle
for power. Democratic political systems involve power struggles of a kind
very different from
, with a prime minister and a
cabinet. It operated very much like the government in London, though its
jurisdiction was limited to domestic affairs. Foreign policy, defence and overall
economic management were set in London. There was also a full local
governmentsystem put in place.
This seems uncontroversial at first sight. However, it transpired that all the
institutions of government came to be dominated by the Protestant Unionists.
This was reinforced by the practice of ‘gerrymandering’ where political boundaries were manipulated to favour one political party
British government, the Northern Ireland Office in
particular. These include:
defence and foreign policy;
relations with the Irish republic;
security and policing;
The governmentalsystem has three main features designed to achieve the
objectives described above. They are:
The electoral system
This is the single transferable vote (STV), as used in the Republic of Ireland.
It is a complex system whose essential features are as follows:
There are multi-member constituencies, normally four.
Each party can put up as many candidates as
conceptualise political appropriateness. Michel Foucault’s notion
of ‘governmentality’ offers a solution.
‘Governmentality’ assumes that the governmentalsystem is
constructed and that it is possible to study this construction as a
totality. Foucault rejects the notion that politics should be segregated
from other social institutions in order to gain insight into the
workings of government. On the contrary
groups enjoyed a considerable degree of
self-government, such as the Jews and Finns had in Imperial Russia, but at
the same time they were denied equal citizenship rights and equal legal
status before the courts.
The experience of history and the
effectiveness of particular types of governmentsystem affect the sense of
national identity. We have already mentioned the American and British
episcopate’s customarily intimate relationship with the government, the Assembly of Clergy frequently played host
to intense power struggles between the guardians of the church and the state.
It is no longer fashionable for historians to write of the absolute monarchy of
Louis XIV, for the image of absolutism hid a governmentalsystem that worked
on a shifting pattern of alliances, patronage and negotiation.9 Yet although
monolithic absolutism has been revealed as a flimsy construction, there is no
doubt that governmental power grew steadily over the course of the