A Military Tactic or Collateral Damage?
Abdulkarim Ekzayez and Ammar Sabouni

settings, direct observations of humanitarian responders, public health practitioners, human rights defenders, and policy and academic researchers complement other sources of information. This can notably fill gaps resulting from shortages of data and lack of evidence. A case in point is violations of international humanitarian law (IHL) protecting humanitarian health workers. Article 14 under the Geneva Convention guaranteed the protection of healthcare workers, transport, and facilities, and those injured during war. Since the start of the twentieth century the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs

This book examines the payment systems operating in British hospitals before the National Health Service (NHS). An overview of the British situation is given, locating the hospitals within both the domestic social and political context, before taking a wider international view. The book sets up the city of Bristol as a case study to explore the operation and meaning of hospital payments on the ground. The foundation of Bristol's historic wealth, and consequent philanthropic dynamism, was trade. The historic prominence of philanthropic associations in Bristol was acknowledged in a Ministry of Health report on the city in the 1930s. The distinctions in payment served to reinforce the differential class relations at the core of philanthropy. The act of payment heightens and diminishes the significance of 1948 as a watershed in the history of British healthcare. The book places the hospitals firmly within the local networks of care, charity and public services, shaped by the economics and politics of a wealthy southern city. It reflects the distinction drawn between and separation of working-class and middle-class patients as a defining characteristic of the system that emerged over the early twentieth century. The rhetorical and political strategies adopted by advocates of private provision were based on the premise that middle-class patients needed to be brought in to a revised notion of the sick poor. The book examines why the voluntary sector and wider mixed economies of healthcare, welfare and public services should be so well developed in Bristol.

Sophie Roborgh

Background: Studying Attacks on Healthcare in Syria The past years have seen a flurry of efforts to comprehensively understand attacks and their impact by a wide range of actors. The unprecedented attacks in the Syrian conflict in particular constitute a watershed, with Syria arguably forming the best researched example to date. In Syria, attacks on healthcare have gained a systematic character since the start of the conflict ( Fouad et

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
George Campbell Gosling

1 Payment in the history of healthcare ‘The voluntary hospital system is not dead’, declared one delegate at the 1938 annual conference of the Incorporated Association of Hospital Officers; ‘It may be changing, it may eventually become something other than a voluntary hospital system, but it is not dead.’ 1 Ten years later it would be brought to an abrupt end, nationalised and integrated almost wholesale into the new

in Payment and philanthropy in British healthcare, 1918–48
Building High-tech Castles in the Air?
Anisa Jabeen Nasir Jafar

and disasters are a good example of this. Even on a smaller scale, one has only to look to mass-casualty incidents in well-resourced settings. Much as plans and protocols may be in place, the need and requirement of the circumstance pushes the limits of capacity, and therefore it is necessary for healthcare (in needing to deliver the most for the most) to focus much more heavily and widely on the rudimentary stages of casualty management and triage. Certainly, the return to ‘normal’ in well

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Interpreting Violence on Healthcare in the Early Stage of the South Sudanese Civil War
Xavier Crombé and Joanna Kuper

Introduction 1 On 15 December 2013, only two and a half years after the Republic of South Sudan had become an independent state, the long-simmering tensions between President Salva Kiir and his former vice-president, Riek Machar, erupted into armed clashes in the capital, Juba. War soon broke out. This article seeks to document and analyse violence affecting the provision of healthcare by Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) and its intended

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
A Belated but Welcome Theory of Change on Mental Health and Development
Laura Davidson

healthcare and comorbidities’. Intersectionality, Social Determinants and COVID-19 To achieve DfID’s vision and measure impact effectively, the document urges NGOs to advocate for and create programmes to ‘address structural conditions and root causes’ of mental ill-health. Yet, the ToC self-admittedly only ‘touches on’ how mental health is inextricably linked to other developmental goals – regrettable, given its clear intersectionality

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
The Politics of ‘Proximity’ and Performing Humanitarianism in Eastern DRC
Myfanwy James

operate ‘mobile clinics’ to provide healthcare to rural areas. North Kivu has been at the centre of violence in the DRC since the L’Alliance des forces démocratiques pour la libération du Congo (AFDL) invasion in 1996, during the second war between 1998 and 2003 when the province was controlled by the Le Rassemblement congolais pour la démocratie (RCD), the Congrès national pour la défense du people (CNDP) conflict from 2004 to 2009 when the zone was divided between different warring groups, and the Mouvement du 23 mars (M23) conflict which played out from

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Nazanin Zadeh-Cummings and Lauren Harris

/or vulnerable North Koreans, but data from agencies working inside the country indicates that a prolonged situation of food insecurity and inadequate access to quality healthcare and hygiene facilities persists. 2 The international humanitarian system in the DPRK includes non-governmental organisations (NGOs), international organisations (IOs) and bilateral organisations. There is no known independent civil society in the DPRK. Humanitarians work with various national and local bodies to deliver their programmes. Humanitarian agencies began working in the country in the mid

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Planned Obsolescence of Medical Humanitarian Missions: An Interview with Tony Redmond, Professor and Practitioner of International Emergency Medicine and Co-founder of HCRI and UK-Med

. Peanut butter, high calorie: the kids love it, it is simple and it has been a game changer. There have been some issues around who owns the rights to it, I understand, but it has been really innovative and really quite simple. But in terms of medical teams, medical support in a humanitarian emergency, there hasn’t been much innovation in the delivery of care. And I think the humanitarian healthcare workers are at fault. I sense there is a reluctance to transfer

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs