German Idealism and
early German Romanticism
Thinking the inﬁnite
The immediate consequences from the 1790s onwards of the perceived failure
of Kant’s attempt to ground philosophy in the principle of subjectivity are
apparent in two areas of philosophy which carry the broad names ‘German
Idealism’, which is mainly associated with Fichte, Schelling and Hegel; and
‘early Romanticism’, which is mainly associated with Novalis, Friedrich
Schlegel and (in some respects) Friedrich Schleiermacher.1 There are, as we
shall see, crucial respects in which these two
There has been increasing interest and debate in recent years on the instituted nature of economic processes in general and the related ideas of the market and the competitive process in particular. This debate lies at the interface between two largely independent disciplines, economics and sociology, and reflects an attempt to bring the two fields of discourse more closely together. This book explores this interface in a number of ways, looking at the competitive process and market relations from a number of different perspectives. It considers the social role of economic institutions in society and examines the various meanings embedded in the word 'markets', as well as developing arguments on the nature of competition as an instituted economic process. The close of the twentieth century saw a virtual canonisation of markets as the best, indeed the only really effective, way to govern an economic system. The market organisation being canonised was simple and pure, along the lines of the standard textbook model in economics. The book discusses the concepts of polysemy , idealism, cognition, materiality and cultural economy. Michael Best provides an account of regional economic adaptation to changed market circumstances. This is the story of the dynamics of capitalism focused on the resurgence of the Route 128 region around Boston following its decline in the mid-1980s in the face of competition from Silicon Valley. The book also addresses the question of how this resurgence was achieved.
irrelevant, if not a hindrance, to the US. Trump’s consistent disregard for
multilateralism and his authoritarian posturing towards allies and enemies alike now confirm the
trend away from liberal internationalism that, despite cosmopolitan rhetoric, was already
evident under the presidency of Barack Obama.
This trend is not simply part of the secular fluctuation in American foreign policy between
idealism and realism: its end is a rupture with the American exceptionalism essential to both
traditions. The National Security
Marie-Luce Desgrandchamps, Lasse Heerten, Arua Oko Omaka, Kevin O'Sullivan, and Bertrand Taithe
University Press ).
( 2015 ), Idealism beyond Borders: The French
Revolutionary Left and the Rise of Humanitarianism
(1954–1988) ( Cambridge :
de St. Jorre ,
( 1972 ), The Nigerian Civil War
In 1796 a German politico-philosophical manifesto proclaims the 'highest act of reason' as an 'aesthetic act'. The ways in which this transformation relates to the development of some of the major directions in modern philosophy is the focus of this book. The book focuses on the main accounts of the human subject and on the conceptions of art and language which emerge within the Kantian and post-Kantian history of aesthetics. Immanuel Kant's main work on aesthetics, the 'third Critique', the Critique of Judgement, forms part of his response to unresolved questions which emerge from his Critique of Pure Reason and Critique of Practical Reason. The early Romantics, who, after all, themselves established the term, can be characterized in a way which distinguishes them from later German Romanticism. The 'Oldest System Programme of German Idealism', is a manifesto for a new philosophy and exemplifies the spirit of early Idealism, not least with regard to mythology. The crucial question posed by the Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling of the System of Transcendental Idealism (STI) is how art relates to philosophy, a question which has recently reappeared in post-structuralism and in aspects of pragmatism. Despite his undoubted insights, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel's insufficiency in relation to music is part of his more general problem with adequately theorising self-consciousness, and thus with his aesthetic theory. Friedrich Schleiermacher argues in the hermeneutics that interpretation of the meaning of Kunst is itself also an 'art'. The book concludes with a discussion on music, language, and Romantic thought.
between ‘Criticism’ and
‘Dogmatism’, a project he characterises in terms of a reconciliation of Idealism
and Realism, or of transcendental philosophy and Naturphilosophie. The main
problem this involves is the primacy of the two approaches in relation to each
other. Prioritising transcendental philosophy avoids dogmatism, but at the
expense of rendering nature secondary to the I, and thus giving rise to Fichte’s
problems. Naturphilosophie gives an account of the I’s ground in material nature,
but seems to have to rely on dogmatic premises to do so – if nature can only
ideas of reason and nature. In order
to see why, we need to consider certain aspects of the anti-Idealism of
Schopenhauer and Marx, before turning in more detail to Nietzsche’s own
Schopenhauer: music as metaphysics
The importance of Arthur Schopenhauer (1788–1860) for the work of the early
Nietzsche is well established. However, it is not clear that Nietzsche’s rejection
of Schopenhauer in his later work means that he in fact rejected all of the elements of Schopenhauer’s thought which had been central to his early texts.
Schopenhauer is an interestingly
all, without which there would be nothing but opaque, inert being; on the other
– and this can be the case even in theories which still give the I a central role in
constituting the world’s intelligibility – the I seems incapable of making itself
intelligible to itself in any exhaustive way. This conﬂicting image of the I is
evident in three of the most notable explorations of the nature of the I in German
Idealism and early Romanticism: those of Fichte, Hölderlin, and Novalis, and
the questions they raise remain central even to contemporary philosophy.
In 2002, the French party system seems to be demonstrating a fluidity, if not outright instability, equal to any period in the Fifth Republic's history. This book explores the extent to which this represents outright change and shifts within a stable structure. Portrayals of French political culture point to incivisme, individualism and a distrust of organizations. The book focuses on three fundamental political issues such as 'politics', 'power' and 'justice', which appear in almost all political discussions and conflicts. It identifies different 'types' of state in political theory and looks at the major challenges to practical state sovereignty in the modern world. Discussing the concept of the nation in the United Kingdom, the book identifies both cultural and political aspects of nationhood. These include nation and state; race and nation; language and the nation; religion and national identity; government and nation; common historical and cultural ties; and a sense of 'nationhood'. Liberal democracy, defensive democracy and citizen democracy/republican democracy are explained. The book also analyses John Stuart Mill's and Isaiah Berlin's views on 'negative' and 'positive' freedom. Conservatism is one of the major intellectual and political strains of thought in Western culture. Liberalism has become the dominant ideology in the third millennium. Socialism sprang from the industrial revolution and the experience of the class that was its product, the working class. Events have made 'fascism' a term of political abuse rather than one of serious ideological analysis. Environmentalism and ecologism constitute one of the most recent ideological movements.
Given the significant similarities and differences between the welfare states of Northern Europe and their reactions to the perceived 'refugee crisis' of 2015, the book focuses primarily on the three main cases of Denmark, Sweden and Germany. Placed in a wider Northern European context – and illustrated by those chapters that also discuss refugee experiences in Norway and the UK – the Danish, Swedish and German cases are the largest case studies of this edited volume. Thus, the book contributes to debates on the governance of non-citizens and the meaning of displacement, mobility and seeking asylum by providing interdisciplinary analyses of a largely overlooked region of the world, with two specific aims. First, we scrutinize the construction of the 2015 crisis as a response to the large influx of refugees, paying particular attention to the disciplinary discourses and bureaucratic structures that are associated with it. Second, we investigate refugees’ encounters with these bureaucratic structures and consider how these encounters shape hopes for building a new life after displacement. This allows us to show that the mobility of specific segments of the world’s population continues to be seen as a threat and a risk that has to be governed and controlled. Focusing on the Northern European context, our volume interrogates emerging policies and discourses as well as the lived experiences of bureaucratization from the perspective of individuals who find themselves the very objects of bureaucracies.