William Muraskin

12 The power of individuals and the dependency of nations in global eradication and immunisation campaigns William Muraskin At one time historians emphasised the ‘Great Man in History’ concept. That idea was later pushed aside by the realisation that larger, more important forces were at work. The individual's importance shrank as the role of massively expanded governments, multi

in The politics of vaccination
A global history

In this book scholars from across the globe investigate changes in ‘society’ and ‘nation’ over time through the lens of immunisation. Such an analysis unmasks the idea of vaccination as a simple health technology and makes visible the social and political complexities in which vaccination programmes are embedded. The collection of essays gives a comparative overview of immunisation at different times in widely different parts of the world and under different types of political regime. Core themes in the chapters include immunisation as an element of state formation; citizens’ articulation of seeing (or not seeing) their needs incorporated into public health practice; allegations that development aid is inappropriately steering third-world health policies; and an ideological shift that treats vaccines as marketable and profitable commodities rather than as essential tools of public health. Throughout, the authors explore relationships among vaccination, vaccine-making, and the discourses and debates on citizenship and nationhood that have accompanied mass vaccination campaigns. The thoughtful investigations of vaccination in relation to state power, concepts of national identify (and sense of solidarity) and individual citizens’ sense of obligation to self and others are completed by an afterword by eminent historian of vaccination William Muraskin. Reflecting on the well-funded global initiatives which do not correspond to the needs of poor countries, Muraskin asserts that an elite fraternity of self-selected global health leaders has undermined the United Nations system of collective health policy determination by launching global disease eradication and immunisation programmes over the last twenty years.

Nazanin Zadeh-Cummings and Lauren Harris

, 2019; Jasper in Cato, 2019 ). Health-related items that have been delayed due to the sanctions exemptions process include reproductive health kits, heaters for immunisation clinics, ambulance parts, refrigerators, wheelchairs, crutches, walking sticks and walkers, glasses and hearing aids; food security programmes have seen delivery of irrigation and agricultural equipment that is time-sensitive due to food production seasons postponed in exemptions ( UN PoE, 2019 : 364–69). One interviewee expressed the view that projects have become simpler and are undertaken in

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
The cultural construction of opposition to immunisation in India
Niels Brimnes

2 Fallacy, sacrilege, betrayal and conspiracy: the cultural construction of opposition to immunisation in India Niels Brimnes Immunisation in India – an outline In January 1819 the Madras Courier published an interesting note by Calvi Virumbon, in which it was claimed that vaccination against smallpox was known in India before Jenner's famous discovery in 1796. Virumbon wrote that he

in The politics of vaccination
Open Access (free)
Gareth Millward

In 1940, diphtheria became the first vaccine of the bacteriological age to be offered free to British children on a national scale. It achieved impressive results in its first years, reducing the case load from over 46,000 in 1940 to just 962 in 1950, and deaths from 2,480 to 49. 1 Medical authorities celebrated this success, but were mindful of the paradox they had created. With diphtheria no longer a common disease, would parents stop immunising their children? And if they did, would a disease that should be eliminated make a deadly

in Vaccinating Britain
Fighting a tropical scourge, modernising the nation
Jaime Benchimol

the twentieth century it became a cornerstone for major transformations in vaccine production capacity and regarding the use of vaccines to fight other diseases in Brazil. I see these vaccines as complex sociotechnical constructs involving many different phenomena: the interactions of microorganisms, culture media and other physico-chemical and biological components that produce substances with alleged or proven immunisation effectiveness

in The politics of vaccination
Open Access (free)
Vaccine policy and production in Japan
Julia Yongue

East have had a direct impact on the prevalence of certain infectious diseases, preventive vaccination policies, which were influenced by numerous factors ranging from changing societal expectations and pressure from parent, patient and physician groups to new scientific discoveries, may have had an even greater impact on the formation of Japan's distinctive approach to immunisation and production. 2 One

in The politics of vaccination
Defending democracy
Author: Ami Pedahzur

This book looks at the theoretical issue of how a democracy can defend itself from those wishing to subvert or destroy it without being required to take measures that would impinge upon the basic principles of the democratic idea. It links social and institutional perspectives to the study, and includes a case study of the Israeli response to Jewish extremism and violence, which tests the theoretical framework outlined in the first chapter. There is an extensive diachronic scrutiny of the state's response to extremist political parties, violent organizations and the infrastructure of extremism and intolerance within Israeli society. The book emphasises the dynamics of the response and the factors that encourage or discourage the shift from less democratic and more democratic models of response.

Elisha P. Renne

, the trader-grandfather challenged the authority of his governor, and even his president, to immunise his granddaughter during a house-to-house polio vaccination exercise. This episode captures the contested nature of vaccination initiatives – between parents and the state, between individual freedom and societal benefits, between those with political authority and those resisting it. During the hour-long stand-off, which resembled something

in The politics of vaccination
Open Access (free)
Paul Greenough, Stuart Blume, and Christine Holmberg

duty and shared solidarity in others. As a rule, controversy clings to immunisation programmes, 2 and different social formations – classes, urban elites, ethnic and confessional majorities and minorities, specialised workforces, refugees, provincial antagonists of capital cities – have at different times and places disputed, evaded or actively opposed state-led vaccination. Nonetheless, in most communities vaccines have come to be accepted

in The politics of vaccination