Justin A. Joyce

Recounting the failures of the United States to adequately address the COVID-19 pandemic, reflecting on the parade of mendacity that has encapsulated the 45th presidency, and interpreting Baldwin’s call to be responsible to our children, Justin A. Joyce introduces the sixth volume of James Baldwin Review.

James Baldwin Review
Author: Ross M. English

The role of the Congress is essential to any study of American government and politics. It would be impossible to gain a complete understanding of the American system of government without an appreciation of the nature and workings of this essential body. This text looks at the workings of the United States Congress, and uses the Republican period of ascendancy, which lasted from 1994 until 2000, as an example of how the Congress works in practice. The book illustrates the basic principles of Congress using contemporary and recent examples, while also drawing attention to the changes that took place in the 1990s. The period of Republican control is absent from many of the standard texts and is of considerable academic interest for a number of reasons, not least the 1994 election, the budget deadlock in 1995 and the Clinton impeachment scandal of 1999. The book traces the origin and development of the United States Congress, before looking in depth at the role of representatives and senators, the committee system, parties in Congress, and the relationship between Congress and the President, the media and interest groups.

Ross M. English

. The impeachment of President Clinton Following allegations of impropriety by President Clinton concerning the so-called ‘Whitewater’ land deals he, his wife and business partners had made in his home state of Arkansas, an independent council was established to look into the President’s behaviour. Failing to find any evidence against the President over Whitewater, the council, Kenneth Starr, began to widen the scope of his investigation. What he discovered was that during a sexual harassment case brought early in his Presidency, Bill Clinton had denied suggestions

in The United States Congress
Open Access (free)
Ross M. English

the island of Cuba in attempt to isolate the Castro Government. This foreign policy initiative came not from the White House, but from Congress. Impeachment In the most extreme of circumstances, the Constitution gives Congress the power to remove the President from office through the process of impeachment. On 19 December 1998 President William Jefferson Clinton became only the second President in the history of the United States to be impeached by the House of Representatives. The House voted to impeach on two articles, perjury before the Grand Jury and obstruction

in The United States Congress

By expanding the geographical scope of the history of violence and war, this volume challenges both Western and state-centric narratives of the decline of violence and its relationship to modernity. It highlights instead similarities across early modernity in terms of representations, legitimations, applications of, and motivations for violence. It seeks to integrate methodologies of the study of violence into the history of war, thereby extending the historical significance of both fields of research. Thirteen case studies outline the myriad ways in which large-scale violence was understood and used by states and non-state actors throughout the early modern period across Africa, Asia, the Americas, the Atlantic, and Europe, demonstrating that it was far more complex than would be suggested by simple narratives of conquest and resistance. Moreover, key features of imperial violence apply equally to large-scale violence within societies. As the authors argue, violence was a continuum, ranging from small-scale, local actions to full-blown war. The latter was privileged legally and increasingly associated with states during early modernity, but its legitimacy was frequently contested and many of its violent forms, such as raiding and destruction of buildings and crops, could be found in activities not officially classed as war.

Open Access (free)
George Philip

Mexico in 2000, the presidential candidate of the Institutional Revolutionary Party (the PRI) received significant election funding from the state oil monopoly Pemex. In Peru in 2000 a close ally of President Fujimori was caught on video bribing a legislator to change sides. In Paraguay in 1999 the president was impeached by congress on charges that included the murder of the vice-president. These are clearly interferences with the electoral process. Overall, to say that consolidated democracy is long-lived democracy risks tautology. The idea of consolidation as

in Democratization through the looking-glass
Open Access (free)
Joseph Jaconelli

it reached the Commons. Further instances of legislative proceedings that bear some of the characteristics of a judicial procedure are provided by Bills of Attainder and, more topically, by the impeachment process. The latter has twice been deployed, unsuccessfully, against a president of the USA: against Johnson in 1868, and Clinton in 1998–99. In both its English and American forms the impeachment procedure bears some of the traits of a trial. In particular, the accusation is framed by the lower house (the House of Commons, the House of Representatives) and the

in Judicial tribunals in England and Europe, 1200–1700
Ross M. English

the forces and only the House of Representatives can declare war. As we shall see later, some of these checks proved to be more effective than others. Congress constantly monitors the behaviour of the executive branch, something which will be examined further in chapter 7. For extreme cases, the Constitution awarded Congress with the ultimate power – the power to remove the President from office. The House of Representatives was given the power of impeachment if the President is guilty of the ambiguous charge of ‘high crimes and misdemeanours’. Impeachment, though

in The United States Congress
How the House of Lords ‘tried’ Queen Caroline
R. A. Melikan

under English law, Parliament could conduct an impeachment. Where the conduct would not constitute a crime, Parliament could enact legislation to criminalise it retrospectively. A bill of attainder, which rendered conduct treasonable or felonious, or a bill to inflict pains and penalties, which affected less-serious conduct, proceeded through each House in the usual stages. At the second reading stage, however, the process assumed a judicial character. Counsel were heard for and against the bill, witnesses were called, and peers and MPs could participate in cross

in Domestic and international trials, 1700–2000
Colonialism, Jewishness and politics in Bacon’s New Atlantis
Claire Jowitt

his impeachment, his ability to ‘speak plain’ should be seen as more equivocal and complex than reading the New Atlantis simply as advice to princes would imply. Bacon’s praise of New Atlantis’s system – particularly King Solamona’s role within it – is read here as covertly criticising James and his rule. On one level, then, the New Atlantis is an advice book that criticises James I in a deliberate, if coded, way. In other words, the New Atlantis does offer advice that might make a counsellor ‘blanch’, but it certainly does not ‘speak plain’. Such an analysis

in Francis Bacon’s New Atlantis