Through a study of the British Empire's largest women's patriotic organisation, formed in 1900 and still in existence, this book examines the relationship between female imperialism and national identity. It throws light on women's involvement in imperialism; on the history of ‘conservative’ women's organisations; on women's interventions in debates concerning citizenship and national identity; and on the history of women in white settler societies. After placing the Imperial Order Daughters of the Empire (IODE) in the context of recent scholarly work in Canadian, gender and imperial history, and post-colonial theory, the book follows the IODE's history through the twentieth century. Chapters focus upon the IODE's attempts to create a British Canada through its maternal feminist work in education, health, welfare and citizenship. In addition, the book reflects on the IODE's responses to threats to Anglo-Canadian hegemony posed by immigration, World Wars and Communism, and examines the complex relationship between imperial loyalty and settler nationalism. Tracing the organisation into the postcolonial era, where previous imperial ideas are outmoded, it considers the transformation from patriotism to charity, and the turn to colonisation at home in the Canadian North.
Anne McClintock and H. Rider Haggard
Gayatri Spivak’s work on nineteenth-century imperialist literature
directs feminist analysis to the narrative dynamics of human reproduction and production.1 She examines the codification of women as racial
reproducers, and its relation to the conception of women as imperial
producers of human subjectivity itself. Exciting though this direction is,
feminist critics also need to further explore how economic production
directly informs, and generates, literary
production of its own brand of female
imperialism. As Dominic Alessio suggests in his examination of female
personifications in the ‘white’ British
‘colonies’ from 1886 to 1940, women were constructed as
‘agents of civilization’, their role moving beyond the
symbolic to that of active racial and moral agents. 2 As Anna Davin
articulated in 1978, such maternal civilizing work was deeply infused
Gender Equality and Culture in Humanitarian Action
Ricardo Fal-Dutra Santos
Movement ( Barnett,
2011 : 1). This system is the sphere where the arguments about respect for
other cultures have their most detrimental impact on the gender-transformative
potential of humanitarian action.
Humanitarianism’s Relationship with Cultures
Modern humanitarianism is bound together with colonialism and imperialism, shaped by
Western, Christian values ( Davey et
al. , 2013 ). Early humanitarianism embodied the salvation
Marie-Luce Desgrandchamps, Lasse Heerten, Arua Oko Omaka, Kevin O'Sullivan, and Bertrand Taithe
with them, notably Bertrand Russell and Jean-Paul Sartre, put up the International
War Crimes Tribunal in 1966. Genocide in a third world conflict had thus already
been widely discussed – but mainly within a leftist counter public, and part
as a dominant paradigm of anti-imperialism. Imperialism created genocides, and this
was hence the main issue from this perspective ( Kalter, 2016 ). What was new about Biafra was that international
mainstream media, like The Times or Der Spiegel
we regulated this violence; which system of government, in other words, would save us from ourselves.
Nature is nothing more than an imperial construct 2 . Writ large over colonisation and the modern will to rule, it provided the sure moral and civilisational basis for taming ‘savage life’ 3 . While claims of native violence were mythologised and consecrated through Orientalist frames throughout the period of colonial imperialism ( Said, 2019 ), the very idea that nature entailed violence and civilisation entailed its ending has never stood up to empirical fact
Caribbean migration to Britain brought many new things—new music, new foods, new styles. It brought new ways of thinking too. This book explores the intellectual ideas that the West Indians brought with them to Britain. It shows that, for more than a century, West Indians living in Britain developed a dazzling intellectual critique of the codes of Imperial Britain. Chapters discuss the influence of, amongst others, C. L. R. James, Una Marson, George Lamming, Jean Rhys, Claude McKay and V. S. Naipaul. The contributors draw from many different disciplines to bring alive the thought and personalities of the figures they discuss, providing a picture of intellectual developments in Britain from which we can still learn much. The introduction argues that the recovery of this Caribbean past, on the home territory of Britain itself, reveals much about the prospects of multiracial Britain.
A collection of essays about the Colonial Medical Service of Africa in which a group of distinguished colonial historians illustrate the diversity and active collaborations to be found in the untidy reality of government medical provision. The authors present important case studies in a series of essays covering former British colonial dependencies in Africa, including Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, Tanzania, Uganda, and Zanzibar. These studies reveal many new insights into the enactments of colonial policy and the ways in which colonial doctors negotiated the day-to-day reality during the height of Imperial rule in Africa. The book provides essential reading for scholars and students of colonial history, medical history and colonial administration.
Royal Tourists, Colonial Subjects, and the Making of a British World, 1860-1911 examines the ritual space of nineteenth-century royal tours of empire and the diverse array of historical actors who participated in them. The book is a tale of royals who were ambivalent and bored partners in the project of empire; colonial administrators who used royal ceremonies to pursue a multiplicity of projects and interests or to imagine themselves as African chiefs or heirs to the Mughal emperors; local princes and chiefs who were bullied and bruised by the politics of the royal tour, even as some of them used the tour to symbolically appropriate or resist British cultural power; and settlers of European descent and people of colour in the empire who made claims on the rights and responsibilities of imperial citizenship and as co-owners of Britain’s global empire. Royal Tourists, Colonial Subjects, and the Making of a British World suggests that the diverse responses to the royal tours of the nineteenth century demonstrate how a multi-centred British-imperial culture was forged in the empire and was constantly made and remade, appropriated and contested. In this context, subjects of empire provincialized the British Isles, centring the colonies in their political and cultural constructions of empire, Britishness, citizenship, and loyalty.
This is a detailed study of the various ways in which London and India were imaginatively constructed by British observers during the nineteenth century. This process took place within a unified field of knowledge that brought together travel and evangelical accounts to exert a formative influence on the creation of London and India for the domestic reading public. Their distinct narratives, rhetoric and chronologies forged homologies between representations of the metropolitan poor and colonial subjects—those constituencies that were seen as the most threatening to imperial progress. Thus the poor and particular sections of the Indian population were inscribed within discourses of western civilization as regressive and inferior peoples. Over time, these discourses increasingly promoted notions of overt and rigid racial hierarchies, the legacy of which remains to this day. This comparative analysis looks afresh at the writings of observers such as Henry Mayhew, Patrick Colquhoun, Charles Grant, Pierce Egan, James Forbes and Emma Roberts, thereby seeking to rethink the location of the poor and India within the nineteenth-century imagination. Drawing upon cultural and intellectual history, it also attempts to extend our understanding of the relationship between ‘centre’ and ‘periphery’.