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Sabine Clarke

industrialisation programmes that were created by the governments of the British Caribbean after 1940 is written out. The story that has emerged, in all its permutations, does not stand up well to close investigation. This chapter will reconsider the dominant narrative by paying close attention to the chronology of events that led to colonies such as Trinidad creating their first pioneer industries legislation, and by evaluating the relative importance of a number of individuals and proposals to the eventual character of the Trinidad ordinances. The claim

in Science at the end of empire
Experts and the development of the British Caribbean, 1940–62
Author: Sabine Clarke

This book produces a major rethinking of the history of development after 1940 through an exploration of Britain’s ambitions for industrialisation in its Caribbean colonies. Industrial development is a neglected topic in histories of the British Colonial Empire, and we know very little of plans for Britain’s Caribbean colonies in general in the late colonial period, despite the role played by riots in the region in prompting an increase in development spending. This account shows the importance of knowledge and expertise in the promotion of a model of Caribbean development that is best described as liberal rather than state-centred and authoritarian. It explores how the post-war period saw an attempt by the Colonial Office to revive Caribbean economies by transforming cane sugar from a low-value foodstuff into a lucrative starting compound for making fuels, plastics and medical products. In addition, it shows that as Caribbean territories moved towards independence and America sought to shape the future of the region, scientific and economic advice became a key strategy for the maintenance of British control of the West Indian colonies. Britain needed to counter attempts by American-backed experts to promote a very different approach to industrial development after 1945 informed by the priorities of US foreign policy.

Open Access (free)
Planned Obsolescence of Medical Humanitarian Missions: An Interview with Tony Redmond, Professor and Practitioner of International Emergency Medicine and Co-founder of HCRI and UK-Med

’re not asking for outside help’ – ‘Oh, they don’t need you anymore,’ they’d say to me. I’d think, ‘Well, actually, no they don’t.’ But there’s this idea that you’ve got to go, and as it’s become more industrialised and competitive, it’s very hard for agencies not to go when others are getting the publicity. GS: It seems as though there should be some sort of planned obsolescence in the humanitarian sector. TR: I think there should be, yes, and you can see it’s starting

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Uses and Misuses of International Humanitarian Law and Humanitarian Principles
Rony Brauman

, far from being a timeless good, are not immune to prevailing stereotypes or political power relationships. As a treaty aimed at an emblematic nineteenth-century battle was being signed, the conflicts and massacres of civil wars and imperial conquests were foreshadowing the twentieth century’s mechanised and industrialised total wars. Dunant himself anticipated the evolution of armed conflict towards total war in a collection of writings published at the end of his life, presciently

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Four Decisive Challenges Confronting Humanitarian Innovation
Gerard Finnigan and Otto Farkas

industrialised processes and the global spread of toxic chemicals, are increasing, not abating ( Landrigan et al. , 2017 ). Human societies are in jeopardy, along with a further one million species at risk from extinction from the accelerating decline in the planet’s physical environment ( IPBES, 2019 ). The UNHCR (2013) predicted that within thirty years, between 50 and 350 million people would be displaced due to environmental stress. Consider the 2015

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Sabine Clarke

approach to development with some long-standing laissez-faire principles. Two wider political issues made Colonial Office attempts to persuade the Caribbean colonies to follow its preferred routes to industrialisation difficult, however. The increasing political autonomy of governments in the Caribbean region meant that Britain could not merely instruct its West Indian possessions to follow its edicts. In addition, it became clear that in the post-war world, the US hoped to shape development across the Caribbean along lines that it found conducive to its own interests

in Science at the end of empire
Open Access (free)
David M. Turner and Daniel Blackie

’. ‘A great many are occasionally disabled who are never heard of,’ he noted, and were subsequently forced into dependency on poor relief ‘in consequence of injuries that no one ever hears of.’5 This book examines the lives and experiences of these people, men like James Jackson, who, until recently, were ‘never heard of’ in histories of industrialisation – the scarred, the mutilated, the ‘distorted’ and the impaired. The process of industrial growth in Britain after 1700, which gathered pace from the late eighteenth century, orchestrated changes in professional

in Disability in the Industrial Revolution
David M. Turner and Daniel Blackie

to colliery owners than profit. Yet, beyond the political and rhetorical use to which he put them, Burt’s observations also raise important questions about the supposed consequences of industrialisation for ‘disabled’ people. As Burt’s recollections make clear, workers with impairments were not automatically forced from the mines 24 DISABILITY IN THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION during the Industrial Revolution but continued to work there in considerable numbers despite their injuries. If industrialisation was such a calamity for disabled people’s working lives, as

in Disability in the Industrial Revolution
Mikko Myllykangas

the European debate on suicide from the north-eastern corner of Europe, the geographical distance and especially socio-economic remoteness between Finland and the leading countries of modernisation presented Westerlund with a bird's eye view of the burning question of the connection between suicide and industrialisation, urbanisation, and modern society. Westerlund, like his contemporaries, acknowledged that suicide – the most repugnant of sins for over a thousand years – was a disease brought about by progress, a dark stain that signified a modern society. In this

in Progress and pathology
The Fowlers and modern brain disorder
Kristine Swenson

’. 8 This chapter will examine how the Fowlers, as entrepreneurial popularisers, revitalised phrenology in the US and, to a lesser degree in Britain, in the mid-nineteenth century, by the masterful dissemination of their ideas and products and their direct appeal to consumer-patients who sought alternatives to mainstream medicine through self-help and self-culture. ‘Practical’ phrenologists such as the Fowlers responded to the supposed ills of modern, industrialised capitalism by touting progressive self

in Progress and pathology