Expanding the work of the clinics
Caroline Rusterholz

were framed as sexual disorders and infertility, and published on these issues. 2 As was the case with the development of medical knowledge of birth control, working in women's welfare centres and birth control clinics provided women doctors with a privileged position from which to observe, learn, acquire and develop new skills. Among these new skills were the handling of sexual difficulties and infertility. Birth control clinics and women's welfare centres therefore constituted spaces for experimentation in these new

in Women’s medicine
Open Access (free)
Sex, family planning and British female doctors in transnational perspective, 1920–70

Women’s medicine explores the key role played by British female doctors in the production and circulation of contraceptive knowledge and the handling of sexual disorders between the 1920s and 1970s at the transnational level, taking France as a point of comparison. This study follows the path of a set of women doctors as they made their way through the predominantly male-dominated medical landscape in establishing birth control and family planning as legitimate fields of medicine. This journey encompasses their practical engagement with birth control and later family planning clinics in Britain, their participation in the development of the international movement of birth control and family planning and their influence on French doctors. Drawing on a wide range of archived and published medical materials, this study sheds light on the strategies British female doctors used, and the alliances they made, to put forward their medical agenda and position themselves as experts and leaders in birth control and family planning research and practice.

Daniela Cutas
and
Anna Smajdor

shaped by assumptions concerning family, fertility and reproduction. Research towards ever more sophisticated medical technologies for the purpose of the relief of infertility has raised relatively few concerns, provided the procedures were proven to be satisfactorily safe, and insofar as they were used to facilitate and reinforce existing norms about family structure and relationships. Ideas of what a family is (or should be) have a powerful influence on determining which potential technological innovations in human reproduction are developed and funded, and who can

in The freedom of scientific research
Maintaining trust
Heidi Mertes

transfer may no longer be possible due to legal restrictions on age at transfer or a maximum storage period of the embryos. In ideal circumstances, IVF patients are asked which disposition option they prefer for their spare embryos: donation to other infertile patients/couples, donation to research or destruction, although not all options are always offered. While there is great variance between countries, high rates of embryo donation for research purposes have been repeatedly reported (Samorinha et al. 2014). Donating embryos for research: maintaining trust 177

in The freedom of scientific research
Open Access (free)
Caroline Rusterholz

planning and gave it a new meaning. From the mid-1930s onwards, family planning no longer encompassed solely the provision of contraceptive advice, but also advice on sexual disorders and infertility, two new subjects born out of patients’ needs and demands. Helena Wright and Joan Malleson were the forerunners of sexual counselling – compared to their colleagues who wrote and engaged with the issue of sexual pleasure in the 1930s, their approach was nothing short of radical. Wright and Malleson set up sexual counselling sessions centred on female sexual pleasure. They

in Women’s medicine
Open Access (free)
The case of uterus and penis transplantation
Gennaro Selvaggi
and
Sean Aas

reconstruction techniques. Uterus transplantation restores fertility in cases of absolute uterine factor infertility (AUFI), which is the most significant cause of totally untreatable infertility (Olausson et al. 2014). Currently, there is no alternative that will permit a woman with AUFI to carry on a pregnancy and deliver a live baby. Interestingly, to serve this end a uterus transplantation need not involve permanent implantation of a donor organ. Thus, uterus transplantation is the first ephemeral (i.e. lasting for a short time) transplantation type, whereby the

in The freedom of scientific research
Johanna Gondouin
,
Suruchi Thapar-Björkert
, and
Ingrid Ryberg

late 2000s, transnational commercial surrogacy has developed into a booming global industry, with an increasing number of involuntarily infertile couples travelling from countries in the Global North, where commercial and altruistic surrogacy is either illegal or less affordable, to low-​cost countries, where surrogate arrangements are offered for a fraction of the cost (Chavkin and Maher, 2010; Gupta, 2006; Pande, 2010; Sunder Rajan, 2007). As hubs in the Global South such as India and Thailand close their borders, the industry relocates to other countries; Nepal

in The power of vulnerability
An Imaginary for Urban Mapuche Jewellery / Warian Rütran
Cynthia Niko Salgado Silva

ancient Greece, and in a much more disruptive way during the twentieth century, its pervasive presence results in distance, density, infertility and impermeability, perhaps because it removes earth from our daily life, leading us to walk on and be surrounded by its grey materiality. This grey is cumbersome on the urban landscape: little community life, electric cables, asphalt pavements, few trees, constant glare and noise, stimuli that are not always friendly, everything is intruded by human

in Performing the jumbled city
Author:

The book explores the relationship between violence against women on one hand, and the rights to health and reproductive health on the other. It argues that violation of the right to health is a consequence of violence, and that (state) health policies might be a cause of – or create the conditions for – violence against women. It significantly contributes to feminist and international human rights legal scholarship by conceptualising a new ground-breaking idea, violence against women’s health (VAWH), using the Hippocratic paradigm as the backbone of the analysis. The two dimensions of violence at the core of the book – the horizontal, ‘interpersonal’ dimension and the vertical ‘state policies’ dimension – are investigated through around 70 decisions of domestic, regional and international judicial or quasi-judicial bodies (the anamnesis). The concept of VAWH, drawn from the anamnesis, enriches the traditional concept of violence against women with a human rights-based approach to autonomy and a reflection on the pervasiveness of patterns of discrimination (diagnosis). VAWH as theorised in the book allows the reconceptualisation of states’ obligations in an innovative way, by identifying for both dimensions obligations of result, due diligence obligations, and obligations to progressively take steps (treatment). The book eventually asks whether it is not international law itself that is the ultimate cause of VAWH (prognosis).

Caroline Rusterholz

raised so as to make every child a wanted child. This idea opened up the path to a new medical research field focusing on infertility and harmonious matrimonial relationships as instrumental to good child-rearing. Female doctors invested in these new fields in great numbers, as we saw in the previous chapter. This international movement was halted for a decade by war, before resurfacing afterwards in 1946. The prevailing context was no longer one of declining fertility, but of the growth of the global population and of an intensive population

in Women’s medicine