Golf is a major global industry. It is played by more than 60 million people worldwide, and there are more than 32 000 courses in 140 countries across the globe. Golf is a sport that has traditionally appealed to the wealthy and powerful in particular, though it attracts players and spectators from a wide range of demographics. Golf has also received criticism regarding its impact on the environment, particularly when it comes to the appropriation of land for golf course development and the use of water and pesticides in course management. The golf industry has, over time, responded to these and other concerns by stressing its capacity for recognizing and dealing with environmental problems. Yet there are reasons to be sceptical about the golf industry's environmental leadership – and, indeed, to be sceptical about corporate environmentalism in general. This book looks at the power relationships in and around golf, examining whether the industry has demonstrated such leadership on environmental matters that it should be trusted to make weighty decisions that have implications for public and environmental health. This is the first comprehensive study of the varying responses to golf-related environmental issues. It is based on extensive empirical work, including research into historical materials and interviews with stakeholders in golf such as course superintendents, protesters, and health professionals. The authors examine golf as a sport and as a global industry, drawing on and contributing to literatures pertaining to environmental sociology, global social movements, institutional change, corporate environmentalism and the sociology of sport.
The Member States between procedural adaptation and structural revolution
Jürgen Mittag and Wolfgang Wessels
of contact in Brussels while the Council – which is
less accessible – plays only a minor role for interest groups as they may
turn instead to their governments in the national capitals. All in all, we
can see that many have become active multi-level players in the semi-official, and even more in the informal and non-hierarchical networks.30
Constitutional provisions: smooth and limited adaptations
Looking at one major indicator for institutionalchange – the legal constitutions of Member States – the findings show again a modest rate of
EC/EU-related revisions. The
A century ago, state institutes of public health played an important role in the production of sera and vaccines. In The Netherlands and the Scandinavian countries they continued to do so until after World War II. Focusing in particular on The Netherlands, this chapter examines their withdrawal from vaccine production in the past 20 years. In the 1980s the Dutch government was still committed to maintaining the state’s ability to produce the vaccines needed by the national vaccination programme. A series of legal and institutional changes sought to protect the public sector vaccine producer against the threat of privatisation. These changes ultimately proved inadequate. Not only was the Institute’s ability to meet demand for new vaccines being eroded by global developments, but policy makers were increasingly convinced that vaccination practices should be harmonised with those of other European countries. The decision to sell off the Dutch state’s vaccine production facilities, taken in 2009, has to be understood in historical context. It was the outcome of globalisation processes that for two decades had worked simultaneously on both the supply and the demand sides
Between international relations and European studies
Ben Tonra and Thomas Christiansen
issues that the EU has had to confront in the
development of an effective foreign policy, and the desire to address
deficiencies with respect to both of these dimensions has engendered the
institutionalchanges that have occurred over the past decade.
In addition, there has been the link between foreign policy, on
the one side, and the Union’s trade, enlargement, economic assistance
and humanitarian aid policies, on the other
We assume that institutions do matter. Historical neo-institutionalist
theories19 and the path-dependency approach20 to policy preferences,
institutions and procedures, policy outcomes and policy instruments
offers a possible starting point. The institutional and procedural design of
the EC/EU is subject to new circumstances, political and institutionalchanges over time – a ‘stickiness in movement along the continuum’.21
Accordingly, Member States seek not only functional, i.e. policy-based,
but also institutional solutions to shared problems on the
Michael Woolcock, Simon Szreter, and Vijayendra Rao
thoroughly embedded into everyday development research and policy
debates; it is in this sense that we now have a ‘consensus’ on their importance.
Our concern, however, in this volume is with better understanding the processes
and mechanisms by which any of these ‘institutions’ in the abstract (e.g.,
‘property rights’) came to take specific concrete forms in particular times and
places, how political and social processes of institutionalchange were encouraged and/or thwarted in attempting to design and implement them, and what
such understandings might tell us about
inspire curious academics who have
not yet attempted CBR. CBR practitioners must aim to be institutionalchange
participants as well as social change participants, acting as role models to draw
other colleagues into the work as well.
Often, however, it is non-institutional participants which can exert more force
on HEIs than those working from the inside. Vocal community partners can be
powerful advocates for CBR, exerting pressure on HEIs through news and social
media to maintain and support university engagement within the community on
important, pressing issues
Smooth adaptation to European values and institutions
contexts the term ‘Council of State’ even involves the president. The
importance of the amendment increased when Finland joined the Union.
The other amendment made to the constitution related to the EEA
membership, and gaining more importance as Finland joined the Union,
purported to confirm the parliament’s participation in the national preparation of EU issues as well as its right to the necessary information. There
have also been some institutionalchanges. The Grand Committee, whose
role was to check the legislative process, has now been given a new task
There ensued, in the years after the Rennes Congress, a sea change in
the approach to internal pluralism, with a shift away from formal organisation along the ‘parties within parties’ lines, and towards Rose’s
‘stable sets of attitudes’ model (1964). This has been accompanied by
institutionalchanges, reducing the reliance on internal proportionality,
and a revived convention of synthesising the major positions before
congress, with all the major groupings effectively forming one courant
(Clift, 2000). These internal changes, which ultimately underpinned
Natural resources and development – which histories matter?
Prosperity, Oxford: Oxford University Press
Bayly 10_Tonra 01 21/06/2011 10:57 Page 267
Commentary: Natural resources and development – which histories matter?
Collier, Paul and Anke Hoeffler (2005). ‘Democracy and natural resource rents’,
Department of Economics: Mimeo, University of Oxford. http://ducis.jhfc.duke.
Evans, Peter (2007) ‘Extending the “institutional” turn: property, politics, and development trajectories’, in Ha-Joon Chang (ed.) InstitutionalChange and Economic Development