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Sport, globalization and the environment

Golf is a major global industry. It is played by more than 60 million people worldwide, and there are more than 32 000 courses in 140 countries across the globe. Golf is a sport that has traditionally appealed to the wealthy and powerful in particular, though it attracts players and spectators from a wide range of demographics. Golf has also received criticism regarding its impact on the environment, particularly when it comes to the appropriation of land for golf course development and the use of water and pesticides in course management. The golf industry has, over time, responded to these and other concerns by stressing its capacity for recognizing and dealing with environmental problems. Yet there are reasons to be sceptical about the golf industry's environmental leadership – and, indeed, to be sceptical about corporate environmentalism in general. This book looks at the power relationships in and around golf, examining whether the industry has demonstrated such leadership on environmental matters that it should be trusted to make weighty decisions that have implications for public and environmental health. This is the first comprehensive study of the varying responses to golf-related environmental issues. It is based on extensive empirical work, including research into historical materials and interviews with stakeholders in golf such as course superintendents, protesters, and health professionals. The authors examine golf as a sport and as a global industry, drawing on and contributing to literatures pertaining to environmental sociology, global social movements, institutional change, corporate environmentalism and the sociology of sport.

The Member States between procedural adaptation and structural revolution

of contact in Brussels while the Council – which is less accessible – plays only a minor role for interest groups as they may turn instead to their governments in the national capitals. All in all, we can see that many have become active multi-level players in the semi-official, and even more in the informal and non-hierarchical networks.30 Constitutional provisions: smooth and limited adaptations Looking at one major indicator for institutional change – the legal constitutions of Member States – the findings show again a modest rate of EC/EU-related revisions. The

in Fifteen into one?
The case of the Netherlands

A century ago, state institutes of public health played an important role in the production of sera and vaccines. In The Netherlands and the Scandinavian countries they continued to do so until after World War II. Focusing in particular on The Netherlands, this chapter examines their withdrawal from vaccine production in the past 20 years. In the 1980s the Dutch government was still committed to maintaining the state’s ability to produce the vaccines needed by the national vaccination programme. A series of legal and institutional changes sought to protect the public sector vaccine producer against the threat of privatisation. These changes ultimately proved inadequate. Not only was the Institute’s ability to meet demand for new vaccines being eroded by global developments, but policy makers were increasingly convinced that vaccination practices should be harmonised with those of other European countries. The decision to sell off the Dutch state’s vaccine production facilities, taken in 2009, has to be understood in historical context. It was the outcome of globalisation processes that for two decades had worked simultaneously on both the supply and the demand sides

in The politics of vaccination
Between international relations and European studies

issues that the EU has had to confront in the development of an effective foreign policy, and the desire to address deficiencies with respect to both of these dimensions has engendered the institutional changes that have occurred over the past decade. In addition, there has been the link between foreign policy, on the one side, and the Union’s trade, enlargement, economic assistance and humanitarian aid policies, on the other

in Rethinking European Union Foreign Policy
Structuring self-made offers and demands

institutional approach We assume that institutions do matter. Historical neo-institutionalist theories19 and the path-dependency approach20 to policy preferences, institutions and procedures, policy outcomes and policy instruments offers a possible starting point. The institutional and procedural design of the EC/EU is subject to new circumstances, political and institutional changes over time – a ‘stickiness in movement along the continuum’.21 Accordingly, Member States seek not only functional, i.e. policy-based, but also institutional solutions to shared problems on the

in Fifteen into one?

apparent. There ensued, in the years after the Rennes Congress, a sea change in the approach to internal pluralism, with a shift away from formal organisation along the ‘parties within parties’ lines, and towards Rose’s ‘stable sets of attitudes’ model (1964). This has been accompanied by institutional changes, reducing the reliance on internal proportionality, and a revived convention of synthesising the major positions before congress, with all the major groupings effectively forming one courant (Clift, 2000). These internal changes, which ultimately underpinned Jospin

in The French party system
Open Access (free)
Smooth adaptation to European values and institutions

contexts the term ‘Council of State’ even involves the president. The importance of the amendment increased when Finland joined the Union. The other amendment made to the constitution related to the EEA membership, and gaining more importance as Finland joined the Union, purported to confirm the parliament’s participation in the national preparation of EU issues as well as its right to the necessary information. There have also been some institutional changes. The Grand Committee, whose role was to check the legislative process, has now been given a new task as a

in Fifteen into one?
Experiences from higher education institutions

inspire curious academics who have not yet attempted CBR. CBR practitioners must aim to be institutional change participants as well as social change participants, acting as role models to draw other colleagues into the work as well. Often, however, it is non-institutional participants which can exert more force on HEIs than those working from the inside. Vocal community partners can be powerful advocates for CBR, exerting pressure on HEIs through news and social media to maintain and support university engagement within the community on important, pressing issues

in Knowledge, democracy and action
Open Access (free)
Approaching golf and environmental issues

highlighting how industry representatives have come to market themselves as leading figures in what we term the ‘responsible golf’ movement. More than a study of golf-related institutional change, though, we also examine how it is that the golf industry has been so effective in some contexts in minimizing government regulation. We discuss, among other developments, the major and highly publicized legislation that was introduced by the provincial government in Ontario, Canada in 2008 – legislation that

in The greening of golf
Open Access (free)
Domestic change through European integration

corporatist system of avoiding conflict remains an open question. Conclusions: the persistence of ambivalence? To assess the changes in the Austrian policy-making process induced by European integration is somewhat difficult owing to the relatively short period of EU membership. Like all institutional change, the adaptation of national institutions, rules, norms and forms of behaviour to the European reality occurs at a rather slow pace, and such changes are far from easy to measure. Assessments which might hold true for some institutions cannot be simply applied to others

in Fifteen into one?