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Editor: Bill Schwarz

Caribbean migration to Britain brought many new things—new music, new foods, new styles. It brought new ways of thinking too. This book explores the intellectual ideas that the West Indians brought with them to Britain. It shows that, for more than a century, West Indians living in Britain developed a dazzling intellectual critique of the codes of Imperial Britain. Chapters discuss the influence of, amongst others, C. L. R. James, Una Marson, George Lamming, Jean Rhys, Claude McKay and V. S. Naipaul. The contributors draw from many different disciplines to bring alive the thought and personalities of the figures they discuss, providing a picture of intellectual developments in Britain from which we can still learn much. The introduction argues that the recovery of this Caribbean past, on the home territory of Britain itself, reveals much about the prospects of multiracial Britain.

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the concept of autism in altering theories of social development in children. Early twentieth century evolutionary models of society generated a unique version of child development that was authenticated via social science, anthropology and political rhetoric. Theories of the ‘social instinct’ in infants and children developed alongside theories of intellectual development

in The metamorphosis of autism
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exploring the intellectual development of the co-operative movement, it has been shown that the political economy of co-operation affected the development of Irish nationalism in the early twentieth century. One way in which Sinn Féin nationalists differentiated themselves from their constitutionalist rivals who dominated Irish politics was in the attitude towards co-operative societies. Sinn Féin's appropriation of a pro-co-operative position positioned the party as sympathetic to the socio-economic concerns of the farming population. Before the

in Civilising rural Ireland
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Beyond the witch trials

awkward process of divorcing themselves from popular concerns and beliefs regarding witchcraft. This shift led, it would seem, to some considerable consternation amongst the witch-believing public as to what was and was not regarded as criminal. Yet while the criminal basis of witchcraft was increasingly undermined by legal circumspection regarding the nature of evidence, and broader intellectual scepticism concerning the reality of witchcraft, beneficial magic remained a crime even though it was rationalised according to intellectual developments. This is particularly

in Beyond the witch trials

-eighteenth-century England never advocated the unrestricted toleration of Catholics, a fact which, in the modernity stakes, certainly does not put them ahead of midcentury French Jansenists. In summary, we can say that intellectual developments – in this case Bayle’s response to religious persecution – might not seem, if read on a purely textual level, to be a new intellectual development at all, but rather a resurgence of the supposed sceptical tradition stretching back to Renaissance Italy. Instead, we can see that contemporary thought began to ‘catch up’ with past sceptical thinkers

in The Enlightenment and religion

impossible to separate intellectual development resulting from broad biographical experience from the supposed influence of past writers. Texts are representatives of the past, yet very often represent no more than a simplified (or misleading) version of one layer of a multi-layered but interactive historical reality. As Oakeshott argued some time ago, the contents of the historical record are only ‘symbols’ of past ‘performative utterances’ which can never, in themselves, be fully recovered.40 This admission, however, does not serve to undermine the historian’s craft, but

in The Enlightenment and religion
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Perceiving, describing and modelling child development

changes in the meaning of autism began to trickle through into psychological theory and make radical changes to our understanding of children’s social, emotional and intellectual development. It is only by viewing these changes in context that one can fully appreciate the major alteration in descriptions of child development that occurred and their relevance to how differently we now think about children

in The metamorphosis of autism

the condition, arguing that the primary problem was one concerned with emotions and affects rather than just intellectual defect. However, as discussed earlier, the relationship between intellectual development and social and emotional development was only just beginning to be mapped out in individual and statistical studies of child development. Kanner’s work presented the

in The metamorphosis of autism

far has been that of the poor Calvinist Bayle falling foul of the wrong audience. Or did he? Should we be so presumptuous, indeed arrogant, as to allow the assumption that, because he was so infamously ‘misread’ by a few elite radical thinkers, he was generally ‘misread’? Did his Christian thought have no impact on the vast majority of his readership who were of course not sceptics or deists, but Christians (and principally Protestants)? From this point of view, much work on the place of Bayle in the dynamic of eighteenth-century intellectual development remains to

in The Enlightenment and religion
Harold Moody and the League of Coloured Peoples

, including wartime talks to the West Indies. In addition there are his numerous campaigning letters to government departments and individuals. In his surviving papers there exists the interleaved Bible, which he received as a prize at King’s College, his many annotations providing further insight into his intellectual development, particularly into his theological and political ideas. 10

in West Indian intellectuals in Britain