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Author: Eşref Aksu

This study explores the normative dimension of the evolving role of the United Nations in peace and security and, ultimately, in governance. What is dealt with here is both the UN's changing raison d'être and the wider normative context within which the organisation is located. The study looks at the UN through the window of one of its most contentious, yet least understood, practices: active involvement in intra-state conflicts as epitomised by UN peacekeeping. Drawing on the conceptual tools provided by the ‘historical structural’ approach, it seeks to understand how and why the international community continuously reinterprets or redefines the UN's role with regard to such conflicts. The study concentrates on intra-state ‘peacekeeping environments’, and examines what changes, if any, have occurred to the normative basis of UN peacekeeping in intra-state conflicts from the early 1960s to the early 1990s. One of the original aspects of the study is its analytical framework, where the conceptualisation of ‘normative basis’ revolves around objectives, functions and authority, and is closely connected with the institutionalised values in the UN Charter such as state sovereignty, human rights and socio-economic development.

Olivia Umurerwa Rutazibwa

humanitarian interventions. The topic was thrust upon me by events in Rwanda in 1994. As a teenage, second-generation Rwandan immigrant in Belgium, I was more personally affected than fellow classmates by the hypocrisy of the international community: the preaching of respect for human rights, followed by their omission during one hundred days of mass murder before the eyes of the world. It felt like there was more to the story than ‘good intentions versus regrettable outcomes’. Ever since, I have worried about the content and purpose of (Western

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Timothy Longman

have killed. To get people to participate took regular and repeated intervention from individuals with authority. These elites used ideological justifications, incentives and threats to inspire participation. In many cases, local leaders themselves resisted instigating the violence, requiring national organisers of the genocide to pressure leaders with incentives and threats and ultimately to remove those who posed an impediment to the violence. Another central point in Leave None to Tell is that the international community made a deliberate decision to allow the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Nazanin Zadeh-Cummings and Lauren Harris

through a combination of political choices and repressive control, the DPRK has engineered a largely man-made (though also environmentally impacted) situation of humanitarian need. However, this does not absolve the organised international community from the humanitarian imperative to respond to suffering wherever it is found, or from ensuring the sanctions regime does not negatively impact aid. As the first point of the Red Cross and NGO Code of Conduct affirms: ‘The humanitarian imperative comes first …. As members of the international community, we recognise our

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Marie-Luce Desgrandchamps, Lasse Heerten, Arua Oko Omaka, Kevin O'Sullivan, and Bertrand Taithe

think about how this happened, I wonder, Arua, if you could tell us how this communication of the Biafran conflict arose from a Nigerian perspective, please? Arua: Yes, I think I should actually start by saying that Biafrans had a good understanding about marketing of the war and connecting with the international community. Initially, they were managing it locally, but at some point they discovered that it was very necessary to reach out to the international community. The

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Brendan T. Lawson

’ agencies, INGOs and intergovernmental organisations. For a famine to be declared, a region needs to surpass three thresholds: 2 deaths per 10,000 people per day (crude death rate), 30 per cent of children are acutely malnourished and 20 per cent of households with extreme food gaps ( IPC Global Partners, 2019 : 9). If the region falls into the category of ‘famine’, the IPC system stresses the need for ‘immediate action’ from the international community ( IPC Global

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
From the Global to the Local
Elena Fiddian-Qasmiyeh

December 1949, as one of two UN agencies (the other being the United Nations Conciliation Commission on Palestine – UNCPP) mandated to fulfill the international community’s obligations towards Palestinian refugees displaced and dispossessed by the partition of Palestine in 1948. The exclusion of Palestinian refugees from the ‘universal’ refugee regime – the 1950 Statute of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) and the 1951 Refugee Convention – and the international community’s failure to secure a political solution to

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Fabrice Weissman

). 4 Abducted in Chechnya in January 2001 by a group of Islamist fighters, the Dutch section head of mission was released after 26 hours, and a letter of apology was published by his captors on the website kavkaz.org. Seeking support from the international community, the armed opposition took advantage of his release to announce its decision to ‘ban all kidnappings of aid workers’. In Colombia, an MSF volunteer held for

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Staff Security and Civilian Protection in the Humanitarian Sector
Miriam Bradley

suspension of programming, it is seen as sending a message about the severity of the situation to the authorities and the international community ( Humanitarian Practice Network, 2010 : 86). Relocating large numbers of civilians could also send a message about the severity of the situation, but when it comes to checklists of costs and benefits to be analysed as part of the decision-making process before evacuating the local civilian population, this

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
A Framework for Measuring Effectiveness in Humanitarian Response
Vincenzo Bollettino and Birthe Anders

Introduction Large-scale humanitarian emergencies are increasingly stretching the international community’s ability to meet critical humanitarian needs. This includes contexts such as Yemen, Syria, Myanmar, Bangladesh, Iraq, Afghanistan, South Sudan, Nigeria and Somalia, as well as many others. In many of these complex emergencies, humanitarian aid workers, medical workers and healthcare facilities are themselves targets of attack, which not only puts aid workers at risk, but can threaten the provision of humanitarian assistance when resources are either

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs