This book provides a detailed consideration of the history of racing in British culture and society, and explores the cultural world of racing during the interwar years. The book shows how racing gave pleasure even to the supposedly respectable middle classes and gave some working-class groups hope and consolation during economically difficult times. Regular attendance and increased spending on betting were found across class and generation, and women too were keen participants. Enjoyed by the royal family and controlled by the Jockey Club and National Hunt Committee, racing's visible emphasis on rank and status helped defend hierarchy and gentlemanly amateurism, and provided support for more conservative British attitudes. The mass media provided a cumulative cultural validation of racing, helping define national and regional identity, and encouraging the affluent consumption of sporting experience and a frank enjoyment of betting. The broader cultural approach of the first half of the book is followed by an exploration if the internal culture of racing itself.
idea that the working classes should pay in to the system,
the various schemes that facilitated this in the community and the almoner who
policed it in the hospital, as well as the idea of opening up the hospital to
middle-class patients, were all inventions of the nineteenth century. Yet it was
not until the interwaryears that any of them became the norm, or even
commonplace. In both principle and practice, the change brought about was more
complex than a
’s Inspectors of Schools felt in
1924 that such reports were exaggerated.2 HMI were in no position to know.
Pupils were unlikely to boast to an unknown, middle-class visiting school
inspector of their involvement in illegal gambling.
Betting was probably exceeded only by cinema-going as the leading leisure
spending activity during the interwaryears.3 The 1853 Betting Houses Act and
1906 Street Betting Act had both assumed that the perceived ‘problem’ of
working-class cash betting could be substantially reduced by prohibition and
police action. They were wrong. Enforcement
twentieth century. Chapter 5 will then step back to consider the
social meaning of payment in such a system.
Essentially this book looks at four new arrivals in British
hospitals from the late nineteenth century, each of which became commonplace in
the interwaryears. These were: patient payments, hospital almoners, hospital
contributory schemes and middle-class patients. None of these were small changes,
and the impact they had upon the philosophy of the hospitals
those attending. Cheltenham was growing in
national popularity in the interwaryears, and in the 1930s the Cheltenham
Gold Cup, based on weight for age, became regarded as the ‘chasers’ Derby’,
attracting fans from across Great Britain and Ireland. The Aintree Grand
National Steeplechase was hugely popular both in terms of numbers attending
and in terms of national betting interest.
Regular racegoers saw each of the courses as having its own individuality.
Ascot was ‘the aristocrat of English racecourses’, with ‘wonderful paddock and
lawns’. Liverpool was ‘a splendid
measurement technologies is often in opposition with individual variance. Measuring normalcy has never been simple. The choice of certain measurement systems was influenced by the relative difficulty or ease of their implementation. Subsequently, these chosen measurement classifications have had a crucial impact on our concept of disability, and I show here that these processes were perpetuated and perfected in the interwaryears in Britain. This book thus provides a new perspective on the relationship between the measurement and understanding of disability.
Failures do not occur Douglas. There is not a single case on record of a woman fitted with the Gräfenberg ring becoming pregnant.
Ethel Mannin, 1930s
The excerpt above is reproduced from the correspondence between Ethel Mannin and Douglas Goldring – two literary figures of the interwaryears. Ethel Mannin, a British
, which was perfected and pursued in the interwaryears as the audiometer was embraced as an objective tool to define noise limits and thresholds. Its utilisation of fixed thresholds for the normal ranges of hearing were also, as I explain in the section that follows, fixed through ‘the telephone as audiometer’. The audiometer was elevated as a tool for testing both noise levels and hearing loss, I argue, because it provided an objective numerical inscription, which could be used to guard against malingering and to negotiate compensation claims for hearing loss. It was
the age of the mass
What these ideas have in common is that they are rather poorly
supported. Therefore, this chapter will subject some of the most
significant contributions to the early 1960s discussion on the idea
of the university to a fairly thorough analysis. On the basis of
knowledge of the interwaryears and the first post-war years, there is
reason to ask in what way these contributions mirrored the academic
situation of the time. The general conditions – the growth of student
numbers, the birth of the mass university, the large-scale social
During the interwaryears, women doctors medicalised birth control in Britain by developing a number of strategies to position themselves as experts in contraception and sexual disorders.
Among these strategies were publication of medical articles on birth control and participation in medical conferences. Yet these forms of dissemination of medical knowledge were not restricted to the national sphere; British women doctors also took part in international conferences on birth control. In fact