Open Access (free)
Humanitarianism in a Post-Liberal World Order
Stephen Hopgood

, creating intolerance, violence and instability. The impact of technology is also not necessarily benign, allowing easy communication, yes, but creating a megaphone for prejudice, propaganda, targeted character attacks and the erosion of trust. But these changes, while important, will not have the same far-reaching consequences as the change in the distribution of power in the system as a whole. The three options outlined above – renegotiated global norms, sectarian norms and a norm void – are not mutually exclusive, and we might pass through them

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Defending democracy
Author: Ami Pedahzur

This book looks at the theoretical issue of how a democracy can defend itself from those wishing to subvert or destroy it without being required to take measures that would impinge upon the basic principles of the democratic idea. It links social and institutional perspectives to the study, and includes a case study of the Israeli response to Jewish extremism and violence, which tests the theoretical framework outlined in the first chapter. There is an extensive diachronic scrutiny of the state's response to extremist political parties, violent organizations and the infrastructure of extremism and intolerance within Israeli society. The book emphasises the dynamics of the response and the factors that encourage or discourage the shift from less democratic and more democratic models of response.

Jonathan Wolff

just as likely that a society will be intolerant precisely because it has a weak ethos. That is because the ethos would crumble if it were not protected; it has to be protected from challenges through intolerance. This, indeed, may be how some totalitarian regimes have acted: because the ethos was so weak, no one is permitted to consider alternatives, for fear that alternatives would prove too attractive. If this is right, then tolerance is independent of strength. So how should we model tolerance? Consider again the firm of accountants, happy in their ‘work hard

in The culture of toleration in diverse societies
Open Access (free)
Complementary or incompatible ideals?
Andrew Mason

MCK7 1/10/2003 10:28 AM Page 132 7 City life and community: complementary or incompatible ideals? Andrew Mason The words ‘city’ and ‘community’ conjure up very different images. The city is often pictured as an arena where diverse social groups or networks may co-exist in an atmosphere of mutual toleration, while the community is seen as a cohesive unit where conformity is fostered at the expense of diversity, thereby breeding intolerance. So understood, community is an unattractive ideal, unlikely to endear itself to those with liberal sympathies. It may be

in The culture of toleration in diverse societies

By expanding the geographical scope of the history of violence and war, this volume challenges both Western and state-centric narratives of the decline of violence and its relationship to modernity. It highlights instead similarities across early modernity in terms of representations, legitimations, applications of, and motivations for violence. It seeks to integrate methodologies of the study of violence into the history of war, thereby extending the historical significance of both fields of research. Thirteen case studies outline the myriad ways in which large-scale violence was understood and used by states and non-state actors throughout the early modern period across Africa, Asia, the Americas, the Atlantic, and Europe, demonstrating that it was far more complex than would be suggested by simple narratives of conquest and resistance. Moreover, key features of imperial violence apply equally to large-scale violence within societies. As the authors argue, violence was a continuum, ranging from small-scale, local actions to full-blown war. The latter was privileged legally and increasingly associated with states during early modernity, but its legitimacy was frequently contested and many of its violent forms, such as raiding and destruction of buildings and crops, could be found in activities not officially classed as war.

Open Access (free)
Reasonable tolerance
Catriona McKinnon and Dario Castiglione

MCKIN 1/10/2003 10:15 AM Page 1 Introduction: reasonable tolerance Catriona McKinnon and Dario Castiglione Theory and practice are often at odds. Yet there is something particularly strange in the way in which the received theory and the presumed practice of toleration in contemporary societies seem to go their separate ways. Theoretical statements on toleration posit at the same time its necessity in democratic societies, and its impossibility as a coherent ideal.1 In her introduction to a comprehensive collection on tolerance and intolerance in modern life

in The culture of toleration in diverse societies
Open Access (free)
The revolt of democratic Christianity and the rise of public opinion
S.J. Barnett

Camisard Revolt (1702–4), which, although desperate and bloody, ultimately failed because of the lack of active sympathy for it amongst the majority of the Catholic population. There is no doubt, as other historians have confirmed, that the Revocation and its aftermath did contribute towards anticlericalism, for the Church was often viewed as more culpable for the inhuman reality of intolerance than the state. Formerly perfectly respectable citizens, between 2,000 and 3,000 Huguenots slaved on 133 The Enlightenment and religion the galleys of France under Louis XIV and

in The Enlightenment and religion
Rainer Forst

and limits for that acceptance. It furthermore needs to be stressed that there are two limits involved here. The first one lies between the normative realm of the practices and beliefs one agrees with, and the realm of the tolerable practices and beliefs that one finds wrong but still can accept in a certain way. The second limit lies between this latter realm and the realm of the intolerable, which is strictly rejected (the limit of toleration properly speaking). Another paradox emerges here, which is that toleration necessarily implies intolerance towards those

in The culture of toleration in diverse societies
Open Access (free)
Amikam Nachmani

Russia or Iran have been left to others. Turkey’s integration in Europe and in the West seems to grow stronger as Turkey’s external adversaries and internal conflicts become weaker and appear to be less threatening. In case Europe develops closer relations with Turkey, it (Europe) should not be concerned that it imports into its own ranks the conflicts mentioned here. Comparison is almost inevitable: Turkey’s European ambitions and achievements get more credit as her Balkan, Arab and Asian neighbors drift more and more towards intolerance, radicalism, less democracy

in Turkey: facing a new millennium
The Conservative challenge
Andrew Lansley MP

were worse off than ever. At the 2000 party conference our message of tolerance lasted three days until the row over zero tolerance of cannabis took over and internal division and intolerance was left as the enduring image of the party. These are painful recollections, but they are necessary. Unity and discipline would have limited these problems, but we have to understand that what they demonstrated was that in a matter of moments, resurrected negative images of our party can undo the work of months of positive policy formulation. By the time of the election

in The Conservatives in Crisis