Search results

The dynamic processes of knowledge production in archaeology and elsewhere in the humanities and social sciences are increasingly viewed within the context of negotiation, cooperation and exchange, as the collaborative effort of groups, clusters and communities of scholars. Shifting focus from the individual scholar to the wider social contexts of her work, this volume investigates the importance of informal networks and conversation in the creation of knowledge about the past, and takes a closer look at the dynamic interaction and exchange that takes place between individuals, groups and clusters of scholars in the wider social settings of scientific work. Various aspects of and mechanisms at work behind the interaction and exchange that takes place between the individual scholar and her community, and the creative processes that such encounters trigger, are critically examined in eleven chapters which draw on a wide spectrum of examples from Europe and North America: from early modern antiquarians to archaeological societies and practitioners at work during the formative years of the modern archaeological disciplines and more recent examples from the twentieth century. The individual chapters engage with theoretical approaches to scientific creativity, knowledge production and interaction such as sociology and geographies of science, and actor-network theory (ANT) in their examination of individual–collective interplay. The book caters to readers both from within and outside the archaeological disciplines; primarily intended for researchers, teachers and students in archaeology, anthropology, classics and the history of science, it will also be of interest to the general reader.

The case of Oscar Montelius and Italy

6 Geographies of networks and knowledge production: the case of Oscar Montelius and Italy Anna Gustavsson In this chapter, I aim to highlight the potential of thinking geographically when studying networks and the production of archaeological knowledge, by considering the contacts in Italy of the Swedish archaeologist Oscar Montelius (1843–1921, see Figure 6.2) and his work on Italian prehistory.1 Oscar Montelius was a pioneer of prehistoric archaeology from the late nineteenth century onwards. He is mainly known for his work on typology and chronology. His Om

in Communities and knowledge production in archaeology
Re-thinking Ludwik Fleck’s concept of the thought-collective according to the case of Serbian archaeology

-style.1 To this end, this chapter seeks to delve into Fleck’s theories on knowledge production to study how they function in practice in the history of archaeology, as based on empirical data consisting of various texts and citation relations that are used to track a particular thought-collective in a clearer, more visual manner. In doing this, a further aim of this chapter is to introduce new theoretical tools for the history of ideas as well as how they may be implemented as inherent to specific methodological strategies. Kuhn’s concept of a paradigm is limited in its

in Communities and knowledge production in archaeology
Interactional strategies in late-nineteenth-century Classical archaeology: the case of Adolf Furtwängler

7 ‘More feared than loved’: interactional strategies in late-nineteenth-century Classical archaeology: the case of Adolf Furtwängler Ulf R. Hansson Knowledge production in archaeology and elsewhere in academia is naturally dependent on the interaction between actors who connect, cluster and collaborate on fieldwork or other projects, and exchange information or test out new discoveries and ideas with colleagues within the various institutional and informal structures of the discipline such as university departments, professional societies, museums, congresses

in Communities and knowledge production in archaeology
Open Access (free)
Archaeology, networks, and the Smithsonian Institution, 1876–79

working in support of Smithsonian projects were seen as rivals to locally based entrepreneurs. ROBERTS 9781526134554 PRINT.indd 35 03/12/2019 08:56 36 Communities and knowledge production in archaeology As the museum functions of the Smithsonian expanded after the Civil War, tension over the antiquarian capital represented by artifacts became particularly evident. It was also anticipated that Smithsonian would ‘synthesize’ dispersed knowledge about American archaeology, both through the centralization of information and through quick publication. The need for such

in Communities and knowledge production in archaeology
Open Access (free)
The first Dutch excavation in Italy, 1952–58

-archaeological context of the excavation itself into a subject of investigation. Recent work on the evolution of archaeology into an independent scientific discipline has covered many approaches to studying the histories of archaeological knowledge production, resulting in biographies of discoverers, genealogies of discoveries and historical analyses of the institutional contexts ROBERTS 9781526134554 PRINT.indd 67 03/12/2019 08:56 68 Communities and knowledge production in archaeology 4.1  Maarten Vermaseren (left) and Carel Claudius van Essen studying the portrait of Serapis

in Communities and knowledge production in archaeology
Open Access (free)
Antonín Salač and the French School at Athens

preoccupation with the basic infrastructure of scholarly production ROBERTS 9781526134554 PRINT.indd 89 03/12/2019 08:56 90 Communities and knowledge production in archaeology – that is, with scholarly networks beyond those attested in published scholarship. At issue here is an idea central to the overlapping bodies of scholarship known as science and technology studies, science studies and histories of science – namely, that scholarship cannot be walled off from ‘real life’ (see e.g. Shapin, 1998; Livingstone, 2003, 2005). Despite scholars’ pretensions to objectivity

in Communities and knowledge production in archaeology
The permeable clusters of Hanna Rydh

formalised arenas emerged, such as museums, laboratories and field sites, all with their particular professional codes. They were all shaping situated landscapes of knowledge production through the dynamics of networking. Against this background several questions may be posed. Who had access to the arenas of knowledge production? Were there professional borders that were open or closed to certain individuals and groups, for example based on wealth, gender or colour of the skin? In what way did such different circumstances affect a discipline in terms of research questions

in Communities and knowledge production in archaeology
Open Access (free)
Clusters of knowledge

undoubtedly flawed, as any pioneer text inevitably is, A History of Archaeological Thought provided archaeologists with a social, economic and politically grounded intellectual history of ROBERTS 9781526134554 PRINT.indd 1 03/12/2019 08:56 2 Communities and knowledge production in archaeology their origins and, perhaps more importantly, it gave succeeding generations of researchers the justification to investigate archaeological history (e.g. Patterson, 1993; Díaz-Andreu and Sørensen, 1998; Schlanger and Nordbladh, 2008; Abadía, 2009; Klejn, 2012). Trigger’s work

in Communities and knowledge production in archaeology
The key role of the Italian antiquarian market in the inception of American Classical art collections during the late-nineteenth century

antiquities in the United States could have caused – and eventually did cause – in Italy. The purpose of this chapter is to describe a particular historical period, which runs from the late 1880s to the first decade of the ROBERTS 9781526134554 PRINT.indd 47 03/12/2019 08:56 48 Communities and knowledge production in archaeology twentieth century, when American collectors and museums began to express interest in purchasing antiquities from the Mediterranean area and particularly from Italy. During this first period, though, the Americans timidly approached the Italian

in Communities and knowledge production in archaeology