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The dynamic processes of knowledge production in archaeology and elsewhere in the humanities and social sciences are increasingly viewed within the context of negotiation, cooperation and exchange, as the collaborative effort of groups, clusters and communities of scholars. Shifting focus from the individual scholar to the wider social contexts of her work, this volume investigates the importance of informal networks and conversation in the creation of knowledge about the past, and takes a closer look at the dynamic interaction and exchange that takes place between individuals, groups and clusters of scholars in the wider social settings of scientific work. Various aspects of and mechanisms at work behind the interaction and exchange that takes place between the individual scholar and her community, and the creative processes that such encounters trigger, are critically examined in eleven chapters which draw on a wide spectrum of examples from Europe and North America: from early modern antiquarians to archaeological societies and practitioners at work during the formative years of the modern archaeological disciplines and more recent examples from the twentieth century. The individual chapters engage with theoretical approaches to scientific creativity, knowledge production and interaction such as sociology and geographies of science, and actor-network theory (ANT) in their examination of individual–collective interplay. The book caters to readers both from within and outside the archaeological disciplines; primarily intended for researchers, teachers and students in archaeology, anthropology, classics and the history of science, it will also be of interest to the general reader.

The case of Oscar Montelius and Italy
Anna Gustavsson

6 Geographies of networks and knowledge production: the case of Oscar Montelius and Italy Anna Gustavsson In this chapter, I aim to highlight the potential of thinking geographically when studying networks and the production of archaeological knowledge, by considering the contacts in Italy of the Swedish archaeologist Oscar Montelius (1843–1921, see Figure 6.2) and his work on Italian prehistory.1 Oscar Montelius was a pioneer of prehistoric archaeology from the late nineteenth century onwards. He is mainly known for his work on typology and chronology. His Om

in Communities and knowledge production in archaeology
Sophie Roborgh

Monitoring of attacks on healthcare has made great strides in the past decade, even if improvement in information has not necessarily resulted in changes on the ground. However, important questions on the knowledge production process continue to be under-explored, including those pertaining to the objectives of monitoring efforts. What does our data actually tell us? Are we missing the (data) point? This paper explores several monitoring mechanisms, and analyses the limitations of the data-gathering exercise, affecting the ability of healthcare workers to share their experiences. By drawing on the experiences of those involved in the medical-humanitarian response in non-government controlled areas in Syria, these dynamics are further brought to the fore, advocating for a more discerning approach in the use of data for such disparate goals as analysis on patterns of attacks (and their implications), advocacy, and accountability.

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Olivia Umurerwa Rutazibwa

order. Eurocentrism has taught us to see the potential end of an era in every relative change in Western power. Thinking about the role of humanitarianism today requires that we don’t reproduce or unwittingly celebrate Western-led order by mourning the end of a history that never actually existed. Given past and present non-Western experiences of liberal order, we might ask: what’s there to mourn? My personal experiences of research and knowledge production regarding humanitarianism have reinforced in me an anti-colonial ethos – an intellectual

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Brendan T. Lawson

of knowledge production of transnational crime and armed conflict. Andreas Morten Jerven’s (2013) Poor Numbers lays bare the problems of African economic data and the ramifications that these uncertainties have for making conclusions about international development. Sally Merry (2016) , in The Seductions of Quantification , diligently and carefully documents the difference between rights-based indicators and the localised experiences of those

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Humanity and Solidarity
Tanja R. Müller and Róisín Read

sector, Lawson highlights four strands of critique. Firstly, he highlights the implications of quantification for knowledge production raising questions about the definitional and logistical challenges with counting in the humanitarian arena. He argues that it is important to carry out ethnographic and material analyses to understand the fascination with data and information technology. Secondly, drawing in part on the work of Dan Maxwell and others, he argues that it is vital we interrogate the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Wordlists, songs, and knowledge production on the colonial Australian frontier
Anna Johnston

Colonial linguistic studies are complex and intriguing textual sources that reveal much about everyday life and knowledge production under frontier conditions. Halfway through her Kamilaroi vocabulary, the Irish-Australian poet Eliza Hamilton Dunlop recorded the phrase: ‘Yalla murrethoo gwalda[.] moorguia binna / Speak in your own language[.] I want to learn as I am stupid.’ 1 Dunlop’s self-positioning is clearly designed to put her Indigenous teachers at ease, setting the terms for her instruction. Yet as the phrase suggests, for Europeans in the Australian

in Worlding the south
Mandakini Pant

unique potential for valuing indigenous knowledge, action research participation and knowledge production around citizens’ concerns. 118 MUP_Hall.indd 118 30/07/2013 17:16 mobilizing and strengthening knowledge in india The MDRC case in particular reveals the ways new knowledge, concepts, insights and practical innovations in knowledge building can foster social transformation. Universities can nurture active citizenship by addressing an array of critical challenges confronting marginalized communities, contributing to their social and economic well-being. Students

in Knowledge, democracy and action
Open Access (free)
John Marriott

the previous century to represent the diversity of metropolitan life, Colquhoun and Egan in their different ways opened up radically new projects of knowledge production. Colquhoun brought the systematic use of statistical materials to reveal the extent of criminal activity. This delinquency, he anticipated, placed before his readers in such a detailed and prominent manner, must excite astonishment

in The other empire
Open Access (free)
A tool of environmental justice in Ecuadorian toxic tours
Amelia Fiske

. This chapter brings the auger to bear on the public discernment of contamination and accountability, offering an opportunity to explore how questions of industrial contamination are adjudicated publicly, and what these tools of knowledge production illuminate and what they occlude (Murphy 2006). Following the auger from official to lay realms is instructive in a moment where expertise is increasingly scrutinized amid what has been debated as an era of “post-­truth” (Sismondo 2017). Yet, rather than collecting robust scientific evidence, the use of the auger in the

in Toxic truths