Experts and the development of the British Caribbean, 1940–62

This book produces a major rethinking of the history of development after 1940 through an exploration of Britain’s ambitions for industrialisation in its Caribbean colonies. Industrial development is a neglected topic in histories of the British Colonial Empire, and we know very little of plans for Britain’s Caribbean colonies in general in the late colonial period, despite the role played by riots in the region in prompting an increase in development spending. This account shows the importance of knowledge and expertise in the promotion of a model of Caribbean development that is best described as liberal rather than state-centred and authoritarian. It explores how the post-war period saw an attempt by the Colonial Office to revive Caribbean economies by transforming cane sugar from a low-value foodstuff into a lucrative starting compound for making fuels, plastics and medical products. In addition, it shows that as Caribbean territories moved towards independence and America sought to shape the future of the region, scientific and economic advice became a key strategy for the maintenance of British control of the West Indian colonies. Britain needed to counter attempts by American-backed experts to promote a very different approach to industrial development after 1945 informed by the priorities of US foreign policy.

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modernisation theory. It describes how the late colonial Caribbean was a laboratory for the emergence of new ideas about the development of manufacturing and shows how initiatives on the ground could in fact contribute to later theoretical work; a rather different relationship between theory and practice from that typically described. This account also broadens our understanding of development by focusing on a region that has been overlooked in historical studies. The riots in Britain’s Caribbean colonies during the 1930s persuaded the British government to greatly increase

in Science at the end of empire
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Science and industrial development: lessons from Britain’s imperial past

, scientists could become part of networks, but useful contacts that would facilitate the transfer of knowledge at the level of the individual colony did not necessarily have the time and opportunity to develop in the late colonial period. Fundamental research into the chemistry of sugar was done on the basis that the results of scientific research would be of interest to businessmen. It became clear, however, that sugar manufacturers that operated in the Caribbean did not possess the necessary chemical and commercial skills to capitalise on the results

in Science at the end of empire
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Contextualising colonial and post-colonial nursing

political sovereignty in spite of geographical dispersion’.8 Post-colonialism will be used here to describe the period in which political and theoretical struggles of previously colonised societies broached their transition from political, military and economic dependence to independent sovereignty.9 Medicine’s and, by association, nursing’s role in this later colonial process may be seen as part of an attempt by the colonisers to justify the harsher sides of imperialism. These attempts at justification were taking place at the same time that political and religious

in Colonial caring
The intellectual influence of non-medical research on policy and practice in the Colonial Medical Service in Tanganyika and Uganda

modernisation or attachment theory, as well as tribal particularism. Significantly, this development worked against the liberal tendencies of many late colonial doctors, who were eager to separate disease susceptibility from broad-based assumptions associating race with certain behaviours, and instead continued to foster a tendency to pathologise African social life through generalised discourses. 3

in Beyond the state
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some areas of land as ‘reserves’, where Indigenous people could continue to occupy and work the land; but, in such cases, their tenure – whether by African or Maori tribal group or Indian band – was communal: the land belonged to that people as a whole. Sooner or later, colonial authorities in these cases insisted that communal property could not satisfy the property qualification, which required that

in Equal subjects, unequal rights
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to vaccination in India beginning in the late colonial period and continuing well into the early decades of Independence; while there were at least four oppositional positions, elite authors (including Mahatma Gandhi) concurred that a free and self-reliant India would be damaged rather than strengthened by public health immunisation. The two final chapters in Part I bring to light hitherto ‘hidden’ vaccination histories by narrating the

in The politics of vaccination
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What does race have to do with the Yugoslav region?

the two, as do questions of race, color, religion, language, and gender. […] Postcolonial studies are a critique of postcoloniality, the condition in areas of the world that were colonies. I do not believe the Ottoman Empire, whose legacy has defined the Balkans, can be treated as a late colonial empire. (Todorova 2009 : 194–5) Several scholars from south-east Europe who do view their work as postcolonial – including Dušan Bjelić, Konstantin Kilibarda and Miglena Todorova – view

in Race and the Yugoslav region
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Looking beyond the state

, 1800–1947 , New Delhi, Orient Longman and Sangam Books, 2005 ; Anne Digby, Diversity and Division in Medicine: Healthcare in South Africa from the 1800s , Oxford, Peter Lang, 2006 ; Guy Attewell, Refiguring Unani Tibb: Plural Healing in Late Colonial India , New Delhi, Orient Longman, 2007 ; Biswamoy Pati and Mark Harrison (eds.), The Social History of Health and

in Beyond the state
Missions, the colonial state and constructing a health system in colonial Tanganyika

be at least attempting to meet the health needs of the territory could only really be justified (to the extent that it could) by recognising the voluntary role that actors in the form of missionary organisations were playing in running health services for Tanganyikans. The model that characterised late colonial-period Tanganyika was one of public-private partnership. Having long acted as informally

in Beyond the state