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In the aftermath of conflict and gross human rights violations, victims have a right to know what happened to their loved ones. Such a right is compromised if mass graves are not adequately protected to preserve evidence, facilitate identification and repatriation of the dead and enable a full and effective investigation to be conducted. Despite guidelines for investigations of the missing, and legal obligations under international law, it is not expressly clear how these mass graves are best legally protected and by whom. This article asks why, to date, there are no unified mass-grave protection guidelines that could serve as a model for states, authorities or international bodies when faced with gross human rights violations or armed conflicts resulting in mass graves. The paper suggests a practical agenda for working towards a more comprehensive set of legal guidelines to protect mass graves.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Crisis, reform and recovery

The Asian financial crisis of 1997-98 shook the foundations of the global economy and what began as a localised currency crisis soon engulfed the entire Asian region. This book explores what went wrong and how did the Asian economies long considered 'miracles' respond, among other things. The combined effects of growing unemployment, rising inflation, and the absence of a meaningful social safety-net system, pushed large numbers of displaced workers and their families into poverty. Resolving Thailand's notorious non-performing loans problem will depend on the fortunes of the country's real economy, and on the success of Thai Asset Management Corporation (TAMC). Under International Monetary Fund's (IMF) oversight, the Indonesian government has also taken steps to deal with the massive debt problem. After Indonesian Debt Restructuring Agency's (INDRA) failure, the Indonesian government passed the Company Bankruptcy and Debt Restructuring and/or Rehabilitation Act to facilitate reorganization of illiquid, but financially viable companies. Economic reforms in Korea were started by Kim Dae-Jung. the partial convertibility of the Renminbi (RMB), not being heavy burdened with short-term debt liabilities, and rapid foreign trade explains China's remarkable immunity to the "Asian flu". The proposed sovereign debt restructuring mechanism (SDRM) (modeled on corporate bankruptcy law) would allow countries to seek legal protection from creditors that stand in the way of restructuring, and in exchange debtors would have to negotiate with their creditors in good faith.

The case of the Netherlands

development of more precise concepts in vaccinology … drive separate national systems towards similarity in their respective approaches’. 51 The growing involvement of the EU in public health, and subsequent moves toward a European procurement system, are clearly in line with the views of European manufacturers. By the mid-1990s it was starting to seem that further legal protection was required if the Institute's tasks were to remain a state

in The politics of vaccination
Open Access (free)
Evil, Genocide and the Limits of Recognition

relationships ‘between’ them. While much of genocide jurisprudence and theory endorses the idea that genocide harms a previously existing people or community, there is no consensus as to what actually constitutes a group as such (and by extension, for some accounts, of those groups that ‘count’ as eligible for legal protection) (see ICTY 2004: §50, ‘Partially Dissenting Opinion of Judge

in Recognition and Global Politics

THE AMSTERDAM TREATY This was agreed in 2000 by all EU members. It asserts a minimum standard of legal protection for all ethnic minorities. When the Article became compulsory in 2003 ethnic minorities throughout the European Union were offered the same protection. The British government take the view that the law in the UK already conforms to Article 13 in most respects, but there may have to be some toughening up of the regulations on policing and the conduct of trials where race is an issue. The additional measures are due to be announced later in 2002. THE RACE

in Understanding British and European political issues
The PRIA experience

Scheduled Castes (SC) and Scheduled Tribes (ST) refer to the official list of caste and tribe schedules attached to legislations. These lists establish entitlement to benefits of legal protection, access to welfare schemes, especially for scheduled castes, of reserved seats in higher education, and in the legislature (both parliament and state assemblies) and institutions of local self-governance, of reserved jobs in government employment and special financial assistance for enterprise. These terms are also used in the Constitution and in various laws.   3 One girl, when

in Knowledge, democracy and action
Mary Warnock, embryos and moral expertise

fertilization techniques’.147 This was partly due to the fact that it touched on difficult questions about life before birth, including when in development embryos began to deserve legal protection. But as Warnock was finding, it also stemmed from the fact that supporters and opponents of research both mobilised equally valid but incompatible claims to support their case. As the Daily Telegraph outlined in 1983, the Warnock committee faced an ‘ethical log jam of conflicting evidence’ when they came to consider embryo research.148 They heard strong support from the Royal

in The making of British bioethics

going through the perils of maternity, she with her new-born white babe and other little ones, was mercilessly carried out in a sheet, and left to bivouac on a bare hill without home or shelter[?] In short, the parallels in forced transportation, physical abuse, denial of marriage, denial of the Christian religion, conniving clergymen, lack of legal protection, enforced immorality, and docility under oppression were compelling. Stowe was committed to the argument (expressed, ironically, by Augustine St Clair in Uncle Tom’s Cabin14) that ‘the thing itself is the

in Special relationships
Open Access (free)

appointments gave bioethicists a major say in shaping legal guidelines for new techniques and allowed them to help determine whether, and when, entities such as in vitro embryos were entitled to legal protection. But in contrast to their American counterparts, British bioethicists had far less say over medical treatment and research, which remains the major source of strategies for determining individual and collective health. This difference was not lost on participants at a 1987 ‘Anglo-American Conference on Biomedical Ethics’, which was held in New York and co

in The making of British bioethics
Open Access (free)
Lesbian citizenship and filmmaking in Sweden in the 1970s

in need of legal protection. Anticipating this crucial shift in the public view on homosexuality, they both take issue with the dominant medical understanding of homosexuality as something abnormal in need of an explanation and cure. Such views are criticised in scenes quoting Brantenberg’s fierce parody of theories of the origins of homosexuality; mocking sex education in schools; rejecting the figure of the ‘mannish’ lesbian that informed sexological notions of ‘gender inversion’; and the figure of the ‘pornographic’ lesbian. The main aim of this chapter has been

in The power of vulnerability