Reasonable tolerance

The idea of toleration as the appropriate response to difference has been central to liberal thought since Locke. Although the subject has been widely and variously explored, there has been reluctance to acknowledge the new meaning that current debates offer on toleration. This book starts from a clear recognition of the new terms of the debate, reflecting the capacity of seeing the other's viewpoint, and the limited extent to which toleration can be granted. Theoretical statements on toleration posit at the same time its necessity in democratic societies, and its impossibility as a coherent ideal. There are several possible objections to, and ways of developing the ideal of, reasonable tolerance as advocated by John Rawls and by some other supporters of political liberalism. The first part of the book explores some of them. In some real-life conflicts, it is unclear on whom the burden of reasonableness may fall. This part discusses the reasonableness of pluralism, and general concept and various more specific conceptions of toleration. The forces of progressive politics have been divided into two camps: redistribution and recognition. The second part of the book is an attempt to explore the internal coherence of such a transformation when applied to different contexts. It argues that openness to others in discourse, and their treatment as free and equal, is part of a kind of reflexive toleration that pertains to public communication in the deliberative context. Social ethos, religious discrimination and education are discussed in connection with tolerance.

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Kevin Harrison and Tony Boyd

pain in the rational pursuit of their own interests. Only individuals could know what was considered best for them, not the state. Utilitarians declared that democracy was the best means of securing ‘the greatest happiness for the greatest number’ in society. This doctrine substantially influenced liberal thought and practical measures, although it was open to the criticism that it subordinated individual human rights to the

in Understanding political ideas and movements
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Beyond the witch trials
Owen Davies and Willem de Blécourt

Helen Parish and William G. Naphy (eds), Religion and Superstition in Reformation Europe (Manchester, 2002). 9 An excellent example of this can be found in Wolfgang Behringer’s account of the ‘Bavarian witchcraft war’ of 1766–70: Behringer, Witchcraft Persecutions, pp. 359–87. 10 For an overview and references see Roy Porter, ‘Witchcraft and Magic in Enlightenment, Romantic and Liberal Thought’, in Gijswijt-Hofstra, Levack and Porter, Witchcraft and Magic, pp. 191–283. 11 Gustav Henningsen, ‘Witch Persecution after the Era of the Witch Trials’, ARV. Scandinavian

in Beyond the witch trials
A naturalistic approach
Gilberto Corbellini and Elisabetta Sirgiovanni

13 Science, self-control and human freedom: a naturalistic approach Gilberto Corbellini and Elisabetta Sirgiovanni A recurring assumption among political philosophers is that freedom as the ancients conceived it was different from the kind of freedom experienced in the modern world. On 13 February 1819, in his famous lecture on The Liberty of the Ancients Compared with that of the Moderns held at the Athénée Royal in Paris, Benjamin-Henri Constant de Rebecque gave one of the most brilliant formulations of liberal thought. Constant affirmed that modern men

in The freedom of scientific research
Heloise Brown

finally, that women’s use of force was inherently defensive. The first of these arguments overlapped with liberal theory, which did not define individual citizenship in this manner. The latter two arguments are perhaps more specifically feminist in nature, although they were of course influenced by the feminist movement’s grounding in liberal thought. Miss Lydia Becker (1827–90) published a response to Stephen in the Women’s Suffrage Journal (WSJ) in 1874, based on the first argument about the role of force in citizenship.15 Taking Stephen’s fundamental assumption that

in ‘The truest form of patriotism’
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Shaun Breslin

in traditional Asian values can be rather problematic. For example, in searching for the roots of liberal thoughts in Confucianism, Goldman (1994) concludes that the basic tenets of Confucianism are not necessarily incongruent with concepts of human rights. This may indeed be true, and Sen (1997) has argued forcefully against the Asian values concept as a justification for authoritarianism. But in some respects, searching for the roots of contemporary authoritarianism or contemporary democracy in The Analects is akin to searching for the roots of democracy in

in Democratization through the looking-glass
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Kevin Harrison and Tony Boyd

, order and justice. Freedom of opinion and expression Most advocates of liberty believe that academic, religious and political opinions should be allowed to compete freely in order for society to solve its problems, to make progress and to function in a healthy way. Freedom of expression is a central tenet of liberal thought: without it no other freedom can exist. Freedom of opinion is associated with

in Understanding political ideas and movements
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Lara Apps and Andrew Gow

Nineteenth Centuries , eds.Bengt Ankarloo and Stuart Clark (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1999), 95–189; Roy Porter, ‘Witchcraft and magic in enlightenment,romantic and liberal thought’, Witchcraft and Magic in Europe: The Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries , 191–282. 31 E.g. Hugh Trevor-Roper, The European Witch

in Male witches in early modern Europe
witchcraft in the western Netherlands, 1850–1925
Willem de Blécourt

–3. 10 Maandblad tegen de Kwakzalverij (hereafter MtK ), 14 May 1894. 11 J. E. Enklaar, Het bijgeloof in vroegeren en lateren tijd en de middelen om het te bestrijden (Amsterdam, 1889), p. 30. See Roy Porter, ‘Witchcraft and Magic in Enlightenment, Romantic and Liberal Thought’, in Clark and Ankarloo, Witchcraft and Magic in Europe , pp. 189–282, especially

in Witchcraft Continued
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An introduction
Saurabh Dube

Formation of a Sikh “Diaspora” ( Durham, NC : Duke University Press , 2001 ); Uday Singh Mehta , Liberalism and Empire: A Study in Nineteenth Century British Liberal Thought ( Chicago, IL : University of Chicago Press , 1999 ); and Michel-Rolph Trouillot , Silencing the Past: Power and the Production of History

in Subjects of modernity