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Liberal peacebuilding and the development-security industry

This book critically examines the range of policies and programmes that attempt to manage economic activity that contributes to political violence. Beginning with an overview of over a dozen policies aimed at transforming these activities into economic relationships which support peace, not war, the book then offers a sustained critique of the reasons for limited success in this policy field. The inability of the range of international actors involved in this policy area, the Development-Security Industry (DSI), to bring about more peaceful political-economic relationships is shown to be a result of liberal biases, resulting conceptual lenses and operational tendencies within this industry. A detailed case study of responses to organised crime in Kosovo offers an in-depth exploration of these problems, but also highlights opportunities for policy innovation. This book offers a new framework for understanding both the problem of economic activity that accompanies and sometimes facilitates violence and programmes aimed at managing these forms of economic activity. Summaries of key arguments and frameworks, found within each chapter, provide accessible templates for both students and aid practitioners seeking to understand war economies and policy reactions in a range of other contexts. It also offers insight into how to alter and improve policy responses in other cases. As such, the book is accessible to a range of readers, including students interested in peace, conflict and international development as well as policy makers and practitioners seeking new ways of understanding war economies and improving responses to them.

From conflict transformation to crisis management
Kari M. Osland and Mateja Peter

problems typically associated with liberal peacebuilding operations – lack of local ownership, technocratic approaches, and lack of accountability – the mission mandate embodied ambitions for conflict transformation. However, as the EU increased its presence and commitment to Kosovo and the region in the late 2000s, it became increasingly difficult to reconcile its own conflicting priorities for the region

in The EU and crisis response
DSI approaches and behaviours
Jenny H. Peterson

understand the barriers and opportunities for building peace economies, one must address three interdependent processes. The limitations of war economy policy can be explained by examining the ideological foundations of the liberal peacebuilding project, conceptual lenses through which the problem is understood and the degree to which this is implemented in programming, as well as the operational characteristics of the DSI. By exploring these related characteristics of the aid industry, one finds that whilst the critiques of liberal peacebuilding do hold in many instances

in Building a peace economy?
Open Access (free)
Liberal reform and the creation of new conflict economies
Jenny H. Peterson

locked in negotiations aimed at not only reviving activities across the complex, but also ensuring this is done in a fair and transparent manner (Smith, 2009). The centrality of the market: liberal peacebuilding and the push for privatisation Since the end of the Cold War, developed and developing nations alike have undergone a deepening of privatisation, with this reform also being a central policy prescription in post-communist and post-socialist states. Indeed, privatisation has been a favoured tool of intervention in transitioning states as international

in Building a peace economy?
Open Access (free)
Protecting borders, confirming statehood and transforming economies?
Jenny H. Peterson

The role of customs reform in managing the legacy of Kosovo’s war economy is explored. This reform area is shown to be a central to the liberal peacebuilding agenda with the protection of borders and the facilitation of trade seen as essential features of an effective liberal state. However, these reforms often lead to a favouring of already powerful actors which in turn pushes others further into the informal and illegal realms. Evidence of depoliticized approaches to reform are evidenced, illustrating the bias for programming to be based on problematic rational-choice understandings of war economies. The role of the DSI in creating problems that customs agencies are tasked with resolving is highlighted, and as with other areas of reform, success is hindered by a range of operational problems. However, evidence also reveals important ‘policy moments’ where a structural political-economy understanding of war economies influenced policy to a greater degree.

in Building a peace economy?
Open Access (free)
War economies, peace economies and transformation
Jenny H. Peterson

economies in conflict-affected states. As the methods and politics of war economy transformation are assessed, what becomes apparent is that current transformation attempts have become both illustrative of and central to the liberal peacebuilding agenda. This agenda, led by international development and security actors, has the ultimate goal of constructing liberal peaces from the vestiges of what they define as weak, failed and collapsed states. It is in the dominance of the liberal peacebuilding agenda that the broader explanation for the failure of transformation

in Building a peace economy?
Open Access (free)
Controversies over gaps within EU crisis management policy
Roger Mac Ginty, Sandra Pogodda, and Oliver P. Richmond

became known in the 1990s as liberal peacebuilding praxis, which was multidimensional and longer term. As will be explained throughout this book, the EU’s slide away from rights and more optimistic views of peace has not been consistent. A key nuance in this picture has been a spatial differentiation between the near and extended neighbourhoods. The fact that the EU has an extended neighbourhood is, in

in The EU and crisis response
Mørten Bøås, Bård Drange, Dlawer Ala'Aldeen, Abdoul Wahab Cissé, and Qayoom Suroush

, focusing on state stability to conflict management. This development is illustrated by the UN’s three so-called ‘stabilisation’ missions in the DR Congo, Central African Republic and Mali. Hence, Karlsrud (2018 : 1) argues that ‘Western states are shifting their strategy from liberal peacebuilding to stabilisation and counterterrorism’. The consequences, Karlsrud warns, is that ‘by primarily

in The EU and crisis response
The nature of the development-security industry
Jenny H. Peterson

on issues such as good governance, individual human rights, democratic politics and strong, independent civil societies, these policies, alongside the above-mentioned economic reforms, constitute what has come to be known as the liberal peacebuilding consensus and form the foundation for the majority of interventions undertaken by the DSI. Of course, as with neo-liberal reform, one can identify variations within this wider project (Richmond, 2007), however, it is widely agreed that at the root of interventions into conflict-affected states are a series of liberal

in Building a peace economy?
A framework for understanding EU crisis response
Oliver P. Richmond, Sandra Pogodda, and Roger Mac Ginty

-makers. In this way, liberal peacebuilding represented a multilevel approach, attempting to incorporate the local, state and regional aspects of, and actors in, conflict – thus moving beyond the top-down, elite-led approaches developed in conflict management and conflict resolution. Lederach’s vision of a people-centric conflict transformation became, instead, conflict transformation-lite or a hollowed

in The EU and crisis response