Europe by numbers
Author:

This book is a history of an illusion. It is also a history of the dream that preceded the illusion. The book discusses statistics as the field of tension between the scientific claims of neutrality and universality on the one hand and the political and economic reality of the conflicting interests of nation-states on the other. The various paths of state- and nation-building that European countries traversed in the nineteenth century are recognisable in the objectives of government statistics and are reflected in the topics selected for statistical study and in the categories used in the research. Each congress was clearly dominated by the specific interests of the country in which the statisticians convened. The book shows in each case how the organisation of government statistics and national concerns influenced the international agenda. It describes the perceptions, goals and dilemmas of the protagonists and their contact with each other, and in so doing unravels the complex relationships between science, government and society, wherever possible from their point of view. The genesis of international statistics was inspired by a desire for reform. Belgium's pioneering role in the European statistical movement was informed both by its liberal polity and the special status of statistics within it, and by Adolphe Quetelet's key position as an intellectual. The consolidation of the Grand Duchy of Baden, a new medium-sized state in the Rhine Confederation and later in the German Confederation, offered great opportunities for the development of official statistics.

Nico Randeraad

subject, but we will see that other, seemingly neutral topics of statistical research were no less thorny. Belgians as trailblazers Belgium’s pioneering role in the European statistical movement was informed both by its liberal polity and the special status of statistics within it, and by Quetelet’s key position as an intellectual. By the mid-nineteenth century, under Quetelet’s leadership a learning process had had an impact on government statistics in Belgium and many practical problems had been resolved. In 1846 a general census of population, industry and

in States and statistics in the nineteenth century
Open Access (free)
Jonathan Seglow

. Decoupled from an obsession with ethnic descent, multiculturalism supports a politics in which men and women come together to take control of the production of their public social world. Conclusion: a republican multiculturalism I have argued in this chapter that (1) multiculturalism must be central not peripheral to any adequate theory of principles to inform the liberal polity; (2) that culture is a process not a

in Political concepts
Open Access (free)
Christoph Menke in dialogue
Series: Critical Powers
Editor:

This book focuses on the paradoxical character of law and specifically concerns the structural violence of law as the political imposition of normative order onto a "lawless" condition. The paradox of law which grounds and motivates Christoph Menke's intervention is that law is both the opposite of violence and, at the same time, a form of violence. The book develops its engagement with the paradox of law in two stages. The first shows why, and in what precise sense, the law is irreducibly characterized by structural violence. The second explores the possibility of law becoming self-reflectively aware of its own violence and, hence, of the form of a self-critique of law in view of its own violence. The Book's philosophical claims are developed through analyses of works of drama: two classical tragedies in the first part and two modern dramas in the second part. It attempts to illuminate the paradoxical nature of law by way of a philosophical interpretation of literature. There are at least two normative orders within the European ethical horizon that should be called "legal orders" even though they forego the use of coercion and are thus potentially nonviolent. These are international law and Jewish law. Understanding the relationship between law and violence is one of the most urgent challenges a postmodern critical legal theory faces today. Self-reflection, the philosophical concept that plays a key role in the essay, stands opposed to all forms of spontaneity.

Reflections on Menke’s ‘Law and violence’
Alessandro Ferrara

“unregulated.” If Menke’s statement that law “must also secure its rule against the possibility of the extra-​legal or non-​law” is understood as a description of the relation that liberal polities have traditionally established with the external world of foreign political communities, such an account is accurate only for the age of colonialism and aggressive expansionism. Since the 1928 Briand-​Kellog Pact, signed by sixty-​two states, not to mention the UN Charter of 1945, aggressive wars are banned as crimes by the international community. Of course these documents were

in Law and violence
The social sphere
Ami Pedahzur

wide range of disciplines associated with civic studies reveals several subject categories. The leading category comprises the liberties espoused by democracy. The formal aspect of governmental or political proceedings and institutions comes some way down the list. The State of Israel, by its very nature a ‘non-liberal democracy’ and therefore unable to guarantee equal rights for all of its citizens, has consciously elected to avoid any debate regarding those rights or any other sensitive issue specific to the non-liberal polity. 16 As a result, Israeli pupils have

in The Israeli response to Jewish extremism and violence
Order and security in post-Cold War Europe
Dimitris N. Chryssochoou
,
Michael J. Tsinisizelis
,
Stelios Stavridis
, and
Kostas Ifantis

administrations.42 In this regard, the far-flung political institutions, rules, norms and relations that the US built during the Cold War are still in place, and these overall macro-structures can be seen to work despite the steady decline in 138 Theory and reform in the European Union America’s hegemonic position and the failings of its leaders. Indeed, the overall US-shaped system is still in place. It is this macropolitical system, a legacy of American power and its liberal polity, that remains crucial in generating agreement in the post-Cold War international relations

in Theory and reform in the European Union
New polity dynamics
Dimitris N. Chryssochoou
,
Michael J. Tsinisizelis
,
Stelios Stavridis
, and
Kostas Ifantis

distribution of formal legislative and executive authority, the form and range of such distribution, and the variegated possibilities for exclusive, concurrent or residual competences. In Western liberal polities, there is a strong predisposition to safeguard the essential norms of democratic governance, with the tensions between different levels of authority often being exacerbated by reference to their acclaimed ‘democrativeness’. Such problems are compounded further 212 Theory and reform in the European Union by the extent to which the polity at hand is characterised

in Theory and reform in the European Union