Europe by numbers
Author: Nico Randeraad

This book is a history of an illusion. It is also a history of the dream that preceded the illusion. The book discusses statistics as the field of tension between the scientific claims of neutrality and universality on the one hand and the political and economic reality of the conflicting interests of nation-states on the other. The various paths of state- and nation-building that European countries traversed in the nineteenth century are recognisable in the objectives of government statistics and are reflected in the topics selected for statistical study and in the categories used in the research. Each congress was clearly dominated by the specific interests of the country in which the statisticians convened. The book shows in each case how the organisation of government statistics and national concerns influenced the international agenda. It describes the perceptions, goals and dilemmas of the protagonists and their contact with each other, and in so doing unravels the complex relationships between science, government and society, wherever possible from their point of view. The genesis of international statistics was inspired by a desire for reform. Belgium's pioneering role in the European statistical movement was informed both by its liberal polity and the special status of statistics within it, and by Adolphe Quetelet's key position as an intellectual. The consolidation of the Grand Duchy of Baden, a new medium-sized state in the Rhine Confederation and later in the German Confederation, offered great opportunities for the development of official statistics.

Nico Randeraad

subject, but we will see that other, seemingly neutral topics of statistical research were no less thorny. Belgians as trailblazers Belgium’s pioneering role in the European statistical movement was informed both by its liberal polity and the special status of statistics within it, and by Quetelet’s key position as an intellectual. By the mid-nineteenth century, under Quetelet’s leadership a learning process had had an impact on government statistics in Belgium and many practical problems had been resolved. In 1846 a general census of population, industry and

in States and statistics in the nineteenth century
Open Access (free)
Jonathan Seglow

. Decoupled from an obsession with ethnic descent, multiculturalism supports a politics in which men and women come together to take control of the production of their public social world. Conclusion: a republican multiculturalism I have argued in this chapter that (1) multiculturalism must be central not peripheral to any adequate theory of principles to inform the liberal polity; (2) that culture is a process not a

in Political concepts
The social sphere
Ami Pedahzur

wide range of disciplines associated with civic studies reveals several subject categories. The leading category comprises the liberties espoused by democracy. The formal aspect of governmental or political proceedings and institutions comes some way down the list. The State of Israel, by its very nature a ‘non-liberal democracy’ and therefore unable to guarantee equal rights for all of its citizens, has consciously elected to avoid any debate regarding those rights or any other sensitive issue specific to the non-liberal polity. 16 As a result, Israeli pupils have

in The Israeli response to Jewish extremism and violence
Order and security in post-Cold War Europe
Dimitris N. Chryssochoou, Michael J. Tsinisizelis, Stelios Stavridis, and Kostas Ifantis

administrations.42 In this regard, the far-flung political institutions, rules, norms and relations that the US built during the Cold War are still in place, and these overall macro-structures can be seen to work despite the steady decline in 138 Theory and reform in the European Union America’s hegemonic position and the failings of its leaders. Indeed, the overall US-shaped system is still in place. It is this macropolitical system, a legacy of American power and its liberal polity, that remains crucial in generating agreement in the post-Cold War international relations

in Theory and reform in the European Union
New polity dynamics
Dimitris N. Chryssochoou, Michael J. Tsinisizelis, Stelios Stavridis, and Kostas Ifantis

distribution of formal legislative and executive authority, the form and range of such distribution, and the variegated possibilities for exclusive, concurrent or residual competences. In Western liberal polities, there is a strong predisposition to safeguard the essential norms of democratic governance, with the tensions between different levels of authority often being exacerbated by reference to their acclaimed ‘democrativeness’. Such problems are compounded further 212 Theory and reform in the European Union by the extent to which the polity at hand is characterised

in Theory and reform in the European Union