Human beings have developed a superabundance of ways of communicating with each other. Some, such as writing, are several millennia old. This book focuses on the relationship between speech and writing both within a single language, Welsh, and between two languages, Welsh and English. It demonstrates that the eighteenth-century Scottish clergy used the popular medium of Gaelic in oral and written form to advance the Gospel. The experience of literacy in early modern Wales was often an expression of legal and religious authority reinforced by the spoken word. This included the hearing of proclamations and other black-letter texts publicly read. Literate Protestant clergymen governed and shaped the Gaelic culture by acting as the bridge-builders between oral and literary traditions, and as arbiters of literary taste and the providers of reading material for newly literate people. The book also offers some illustrations of how anecdotes became social tools which used to make points not only in private correspondence but also in civil conversation in early modern England. Locating vagabonds and minstrels, and other wanderers on the margins of settled society depended on the survival of the appropriate historical record. Cautionary tales of the judgements God visited upon flagrant and incorrigible sinners circulated widely in sixteenth- and seventeenth-century England: stories of sabbath-breakers, swearers, drunkards, adulterers and other ungodly livers struck down suddenly by the avenging arm of the Almighty. During the age of Enlightenment, intellectual culture nourished a new understanding of non-literate language and culture.
Clergy, orality and print in the Scottish Gaelic world
have continued to enjoy considerable
status in their communities, standing shoulder to shoulder alongside schoolmasters and doctors as the beneficiaries of formal education and its associated
literary skills, acquired in their college and university training.
This chapter proposes to examine primarily the role of the Protestant
clergy in the Scottish Highlands as practitioners of the written word, especially
in relation to the Gaelic language. The extent to which the clergy stood at
the boundaries of oral and literarytraditions in the Scottish Highlands, as
The poetics of sustainability and the politics of what we’re
problematic in the years after his
book’s publication; through a reading of the title poem of Sea Change, I will
show how Graham engages with these problems while using techniques
for which Scigaj criticises her earlier work. I will proceed to analyse the
way Graham’s engagement is sustained throughout Sea Change, and go on
to examine how the book’s dialogue with the literarytradition attempts to
sustain our culture. I will then reflexively examine how Graham endeavours
to sustain art in the face of twenty-first-century environmental change,
highlighting the significance
. 76–89. See also Meenakshi Mukherjee (ed.), Rushdie’s Midnight’s
Children: A Book of Readings (Delhi: Pencraft International, 1999).
17 On the imbrication of the novel and the nation, see Ray, En-Gendering India, pp.
10–14; Steven Connor, The English Novel in History, 1950–1995 (London and New
York: Routledge, 1996).
18 See, for example, Simon Gikandi, Reading Chinua Achebe (London: James Currey,
19 In a variety of literarytraditions, including several forms of African nationalism,
writing has typically been characterised as a masculine activity, and the
Unearthing the truth in Patrick O’Keeffe’s The Hill Road
Vivian Valvano Lynch
reflect his own diasporic status, since his characters are frequently haunted
by the culture they cannot quite leave behind. While the recurring
motifs of buried secrets in an occluded past, painful revelations or halfrevelations and thwarted desires hardly rank as new in Irish literarytradition, O’Keeffe’s distinctiveness lies in his chronicling of the economic, cultural and spiritual condition of rural Ireland in the decades
preceding the 1990s boom.
Only one of the novellas, ‘That’s Our Name’, was published prior
to the publication of The Hill Road.1 That
Sarah Orne Jewett, The Tory Lover, and Walter Scott, Waverley
See Kammer, Season of Youth, p. 63. Dekker, American Historical Romance,
pp. 103–4, notes how Scott was attractive to a sectionalised American South.
For other aspects of this, see Susan Manning, ‘Scott and Hawthorne: The
Making of a National LiteraryTradition’, in Alexander and Hewitt (eds),
Scott and His Inﬂuence, pp. 421–31; and June Howard, ‘Unraveling Regions,
Unsettling Periods: Sarah Orne Jewett and American Literary History’,
American Literature, 68 (1996), 365–84.
Marjorie Pryse, ‘Sex, Class, and “Category Crisis”: Reading
T.S. Eliot and Gothic hauntings in Waugh’s A Handful of Dust and Barnes’s Nightwood
Avril Horner and Sue Zlosnik
reference point for this re-assessment, we also draw attention to the way in which both Barnes and Waugh use his work as a touchstone to negotiate the Gothic within their novels. We suggest that Eliot’s
relationships with these two texts, when taken together, oﬀer an interesting perspective on the relationship borne by Modernism in its late phase
to literarytraditions, both English and American. Furthermore, Eliot’s
critical appraisal of Barnes’s work is shown to be informed by a perspective which reveals an American anxiety concerning tradition and the individual talent
The structures of migration in Tales from Firozsha Baag
symbolism and epiphanic revelation, and a differently inflected
version of conventional, teleological plotting has proved especially
9/6/04, 4:07 pm
attractive to writers with an oblique relationship to established
The short story cycle contains features such as thematic and
symbolic patterns of recurrence and development, and is often
structured and given unity by events occurring in a particular
locale. Such locales can be so vividly realised, and impact so
strongly on the
are philosophical dramas, it is because they
retain an ethical dimension within the limits of those social, historical and linguistic
conventions which simultaneously remain in need of redress and actually conjure an
ethical situation into being. Evidently, these distinctions concerning the locatedness
of our hermeneutic experience and its ethical implications go to the heart of literarytradition itself insofar as it constitutes a hegemonic process that is dynamic and contingent and which allows for the possibility of intervention as well as future change
details of declaimers.
J. E Caerwyn Williams and Patrick K. Ford, The Irish LiteraryTradition (Cardiff:
University of Wales Press, 1992), ch. 4; John Aubrey, Monumenta Brittanica,
ed. John Fowles and Rodney Legg (Boston, MA: Little Brown & Co, 1980–82),
NLW, Great Sessions 4/966/6/175 (dancers); Great Sessions 4/966/175; 24/9/
rex m.3d; 4/1/2/36 ( John Hudol); cf. Edwards, Dafydd ap Gwilym: Influences
and Analogues, 35, for late medieval references to magicians and acrobats.
In addition several fiddlers are named in Welsh sources but the term