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Open Access (free)
Oral culture in Britain 1500–1850
Editors: Adam Fox and Daniel Woolf

Human beings have developed a superabundance of ways of communicating with each other. Some, such as writing, are several millennia old. This book focuses on the relationship between speech and writing both within a single language, Welsh, and between two languages, Welsh and English. It demonstrates that the eighteenth-century Scottish clergy used the popular medium of Gaelic in oral and written form to advance the Gospel. The experience of literacy in early modern Wales was often an expression of legal and religious authority reinforced by the spoken word. This included the hearing of proclamations and other black-letter texts publicly read. Literate Protestant clergymen governed and shaped the Gaelic culture by acting as the bridge-builders between oral and literary traditions, and as arbiters of literary taste and the providers of reading material for newly literate people. The book also offers some illustrations of how anecdotes became social tools which used to make points not only in private correspondence but also in civil conversation in early modern England. Locating vagabonds and minstrels, and other wanderers on the margins of settled society depended on the survival of the appropriate historical record. Cautionary tales of the judgements God visited upon flagrant and incorrigible sinners circulated widely in sixteenth- and seventeenth-century England: stories of sabbath-breakers, swearers, drunkards, adulterers and other ungodly livers struck down suddenly by the avenging arm of the Almighty. During the age of Enlightenment, intellectual culture nourished a new understanding of non-literate language and culture.

Open Access (free)
Clergy, orality and print in the Scottish Gaelic world
Donald Meek

have continued to enjoy considerable status in their communities, standing shoulder to shoulder alongside schoolmasters and doctors as the beneficiaries of formal education and its associated literary skills, acquired in their college and university training. This chapter proposes to examine primarily the role of the Protestant clergy in the Scottish Highlands as practitioners of the written word, especially in relation to the Gaelic language. The extent to which the clergy stood at the boundaries of oral and literary traditions in the Scottish Highlands, as in other

in The spoken word
The poetics of sustainability and the politics of what we’re sustaining
Matthew Griffiths

problematic in the years after his book’s publication; through a reading of the title poem of Sea Change, I will show how Graham engages with these problems while using techniques for which Scigaj criticises her earlier work. I will proceed to analyse the way Graham’s engagement is sustained throughout Sea Change, and go on to examine how the book’s dialogue with the literary tradition attempts to sustain our culture. I will then reflexively examine how Graham endeavours to sustain art in the face of twenty-first-century environmental change, highlighting the significance

in Literature and sustainability
Theorising the en-gendered nation
Elleke Boehmer

. 76–89. See also Meenakshi Mukherjee (ed.), Rushdie’s Midnight’s Children: A Book of Readings (Delhi: Pencraft International, 1999). 17 On the imbrication of the novel and the nation, see Ray, En-Gendering India, pp. 10–14; Steven Connor, The English Novel in History, 1950–1995 (London and New York: Routledge, 1996). 18 See, for example, Simon Gikandi, Reading Chinua Achebe (London: James Currey, 1991). 19 In a variety of literary traditions, including several forms of African nationalism, writing has typically been characterised as a masculine activity, and the

in Stories of women
Open Access (free)
Unearthing the truth in Patrick O’Keeffe’s The Hill Road
Vivian Valvano Lynch

clearly reflect his own diasporic status, since his characters are frequently haunted by the culture they cannot quite leave behind. While the recurring motifs of buried secrets in an occluded past, painful revelations or halfrevelations and thwarted desires hardly rank as new in Irish literary tradition, O’Keeffe’s distinctiveness lies in his chronicling of the economic, cultural and spiritual condition of rural Ireland in the decades preceding the 1990s boom. Only one of the novellas, ‘That’s Our Name’, was published prior to the publication of The Hill Road.1 That

in Irish literature since 1990
Sarah Orne Jewett, The Tory Lover, and Walter Scott, Waverley
Alison Easton

Humphrey, Walter Scott, ‘Waverley’. See Kammer, Season of Youth, p. 63. Dekker, American Historical Romance, pp. 103–4, notes how Scott was attractive to a sectionalised American South. For other aspects of this, see Susan Manning, ‘Scott and Hawthorne: The Making of a National Literary Tradition’, in Alexander and Hewitt (eds), Scott and His Influence, pp. 421–31; and June Howard, ‘Unraveling Regions, Unsettling Periods: Sarah Orne Jewett and American Literary History’, American Literature, 68 (1996), 365–84. Marjorie Pryse, ‘Sex, Class, and “Category Crisis”: Reading

in Special relationships
T.S. Eliot and Gothic hauntings in Waugh’s A Handful of Dust and Barnes’s Nightwood
Avril Horner and Sue Zlosnik

reference point for this re-assessment, we also draw attention to the way in which both Barnes and Waugh use his work as a touchstone to negotiate the Gothic within their novels. We suggest that Eliot’s relationships with these two texts, when taken together, offer an interesting perspective on the relationship borne by Modernism in its late phase to literary traditions, both English and American. Furthermore, Eliot’s critical appraisal of Barnes’s work is shown to be informed by a perspective which reveals an American anxiety concerning tradition and the individual talent

in Special relationships
Natalie K. Eschenbaum

his part The king of senses, greater than the rest, He yields Love up the keys unto my heart[.]6 In The Five Senses: Studies in a Literary Tradition, LouiseVinge offers an impressive survey of these sensual verse catalogues. She mentions Cowley’s ‘The Soul’ (1647) and Cleveland’s ‘To the State of Love, Or, the Senses’ Festival’ (1651) to demonstrate how the five senses topos persisted in mid-seventeenth-century love poetry.7 Herrick, publishing at this time, would have been aware of the tradition. But Hesperides is not part of Vinge’s survey because Herrick does

in The senses in early modern England, 1558–1660
The structures of migration in Tales from Firozsha Baag
Peter Morey

fragmentation, foregrounded symbolism and epiphanic revelation, and a differently inflected version of conventional, teleological plotting has proved especially Morey_Mistry_02_Chap 2 29 9/6/04, 4:07 pm 30 Rohinton Mistry attractive to writers with an oblique relationship to established literary traditions. The short story cycle contains features such as thematic and symbolic patterns of recurrence and development, and is often structured and given unity by events occurring in a particular locale. Such locales can be so vividly realised, and impact so strongly on the

in Rohinton Mistry
Open Access (free)
Hamlet, adaptation and the work of following
John J. Joughin

are philosophical dramas, it is because they retain an ethical dimension within the limits of those social, historical and linguistic conventions which simultaneously remain in need of redress and actually conjure an ethical situation into being. Evidently, these distinctions concerning the locatedness of our hermeneutic experience and its ethical implications go to the heart of literary tradition itself insofar as it constitutes a hegemonic process that is dynamic and contingent and which allows for the possibility of intervention as well as future change and

in The new aestheticism