Open Access (free)
Rainer Bauböck in dialogue
Series: Critical Powers
Editor: Rainer Bauböck

This book addresses the major theoretical and practical issues of the forms of citizenship and access to citizenship in different types of polity, and the specification and justification of rights of non-citizen immigrants as well as non-resident citizens. It also addresses the conditions under which norms governing citizenship can legitimately vary. The book discusses the principles of including all affected interests (AAI), all subject to coercion (ASC) and all citizenship stakeholders (ACS). They complement each other because they serve distinct purposes of democratic inclusion. The book proposes that democratic inclusion principles specify a relation between an individual or group that has an inclusion claim and a political community that aims to achieve democratic legitimacy for its political decisions and institutions. It contextualizes the principle of stakeholder inclusion, which provides the best answer to the question of democratic boundaries of membership, by applying it to polities of different types. The book distinguishes state, local and regional polities and argues that they differ in their membership character. It examines how a principle of stakeholder inclusion applies to polities of different types. The book illustrates the difference between consensual and automatic modes of inclusion by considering the contrast between birthright acquisition of citizenship, which is generally automatic, and naturalization, which requires an application.

Open Access (free)
A pluralist theory of citizenship

citizenship (local, substate regional, state and supranational), there are only three distinct polity constellations and corresponding membership rules (birthright, residence-based and derivative). In section 4.3 I described how the modern relation between states and self-governing local polities has emerged from turning the previous constellation of free cities in empires inside out. We can now add to this the further observation that

in Democratic inclusion
Open Access (free)

principle applies to states and another to local polities, since these principles aim to spell out basic moral ideas about democracy and membership. The solution I found consisted of two moves. The first was to restate the stakeholder principle as entailing a relational correspondence between individual inclusion and collective self-government claims. This made it possible to explain why the same stakeholder principle supports different rules for

in Democratic inclusion