This text aims to fill a gap in the field of Middle Eastern political studies by combining international relations theory with concrete case studies. It begins with an overview of the rules and features of the Middle East regional system—the arena in which the local states, including Egypt, Turkey, Iran, Israel and the Arab states of Syria, Jordan and Iraq, operate. The book goes on to analyse foreign-policy-making in key states, illustrating how systemic determinants constrain this policy-making, and how these constraints are dealt with in distinctive ways depending on the particular domestic features of the individual states. Finally, it goes on to look at the outcomes of state policies by examining several major conflicts including the Arab-Israeli conflict and the Gulf War, and the system of regional alignment. The study assesses the impact of international penetration in the region, including the historic reasons behind the formation of the regional state system. It also analyses the continued role of external great powers, such as the United States and the former Soviet Union, and explains the process by which the region has become incorporated into the global capitalist market.

come to be known as the ‘rivers of blood speech’, created a furious response. On the one hand, Powell claimed to receive 100,000 letters of support for his views. The right-wing press seized on the statement in their campaign to see strict limits on immigration. The Conservative party (led at the time by Ted Heath), where Powell did have a certain degree of support, was forced to sack him from the shadow cabinet. In parliament, where the second Race Relations Act was being debated, MPs on both sides of the divide were galvanised into a major conflict over immigration

in Understanding British and European political issues
Open Access (free)
Contextualising colonial and post-colonial nursing

disease outbreak, as a prism through which to examine historical questions, invisible or overlooked processes can be revealed. Dale also uses a crisis, in her case the Second Anglo-Boer War (1899–1902), to question the motivation, control and organisation of military nursing at the end of the nineteenth century. Her study reveals a crisis within military nursing, performed at the time by a mix of trained and lay nurses, as the army struggled to meet the demand for professional nursing in the first major conflict to involve nurses in large numbers since the Crimea. The

in Colonial caring
Security and complex political emergencies instead of development

member states. So, on the one hand there are the national interests of the fifteen member states, which might very well differ from the interests of the European Union. Special ‘European’ interests are supposed to be related to the idea that, based on values, Europe has a special role to play in the world (Hill and Wallace, 1996: 9). According to Roy Ginsberg (1999: 436), such principles and values are ‘democracy, soft-edged capitalism, a zone of peace among members, and diplomatic mediation between third parties to undercut the causes of major conflict’. In order to

in EU development cooperation

our purposes is the plurality of actors involved in constituting the major conflict line at any one time in the history of the European states’ system: two during the seventeenth century, many during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, again two during the twentieth century. Now, with the United States being the only superpower around, the so-called ‘unipolar moment’ has arrived – but it is

in Mapping European security after Kosovo

ideological level: that of the familles spirituelles. It is these ideological ‘families’ that are compared on the basis of the other criteria. Although his main typology is based on ideology, Von Beyme writes that he has constructed the different types on the basis of Rokkan’s famous historical–sociological study of the four critical lines of cleavages (Von Beyme 1985: 23). Where Rokkan distinguishes ten ‘ideological groups’ on the basis of four major conflicts (cleavages) in Western Europe (Rokkan 1970), Von Beyme specifies only nine ‘spiritual families’: (i) liberal and

in The ideology of the extreme right
Wilkes and America

overshadowed when a local French governor expelled British subjects from Turk’s Island, south of the Bahamas, on 1 June 1764. At Grenville’s instigation Britain put together a naval task force, including four ships of the line, designed to overcome any local opposition and to deter any prospect of a major conflict. Spain and France promptly conceded the points in dispute, respectively promising not to molest the Honduras settlements and disavowing the Turk’s Island action, with the French government professing ignorance of its location! Likewise, early in 1765 the threat of

in George III
The evolving European security architecture

its first Institutional imperatives of system change 171 new military policy document in almost twenty years, the MC400 document. It was a major step towards the redefinition of the Alliance’s role in the new Europe. The Council accepted that the end of the East–West confrontation had greatly reduced the risk of major conflict and that the notion of a ‘predominant threat’ had given way to ‘risks’. The Strategic Concept found that risks to Allied security were less likely to result from calculated aggression against the territory of NATO members than from ‘the

in Theory and reform in the European Union