Setting the standards for disability in the interwar period.

Measuring difference, numbering normal provides a detailed study of the technological construction of disability by examining how the audiometer and spirometer were used to create numerical proxies for invisible and inarticulable experiences. Measurements, and their manipulation, have been underestimated as crucial historical forces motivating and guiding the way we think about disability. Using measurement technology as a lens, this book draws together several existing discussions on disability, healthcare, medical practice, embodiment and emerging medical and scientific technologies at the turn of the twentieth century. As such, this work connects several important and usually separate academic subject areas and historical specialisms. The standards embedded in instrumentation created strict but ultimately arbitrary thresholds of normalcy and abnormalcy. Considering these standards from a long historical perspective reveals how these dividing lines shifted when pushed. The central thesis of this book is that health measurements are given artificial authority if they are particularly amenable to calculability and easy measurement. These measurement processes were perpetuated and perfected in the interwar years in Britain as the previously invisible limits of the body were made visible and measurable. Determination to consider body processes as quantifiable was driven by the need to compensate for disability occasioned by warfare or industry. This focus thus draws attention to the biopower associated with systems, which has emerged as a central area of concern for modern healthcare in the second decade of the twenty-first century.

Open Access (free)
Planned Obsolescence of Medical Humanitarian Missions: An Interview with Tony Redmond, Professor and Practitioner of International Emergency Medicine and Co-founder of HCRI and UK-Med

a huge innovation. So, we’ve got the standards and people are keen to work to those standards because they see it as a kite mark . The next stage now is to get the data and review what we’re actually doing. This might show that we’re having minimal impact; it might show negative aspects of the work; and it might point out what the good things are. The measurement of outcomes in and of itself is an innovation, because these practices never used to be

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Four Decisive Challenges Confronting Humanitarian Innovation
Gerard Finnigan and Otto Farkas

delivered for the people or community by or through the innovation. The inadvertent effects of such policies inhibit the potential for discovering remarkable or unforeseen impacts created by innovations, and they restrict the measurement of efficacy or comparisons of effect achieved by the innovation compared with former approaches ( Blanchet et al. , 2017 ; Waldman and Toole, 2017 ). Lastly, innovative donor policies and approaches need to be implemented carefully so

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Digital Bodies, Data and Gifts
Kristin Bergtora Sandvik

that track and analyse activity ( Carter et al. , 2018 : 2). Operating on the developing interfaces between bio and sensor technology, wearables provide measurement, selection, screening, legibility, calculability and visibility. Increasingly, they are also vehicles for the delivery of medicine or reproductive control. Tracking operates through and upon multiple layers: general biodata, such as height, weight, gender, age and race; bodily fluids, including blood

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Designing and road testing new measurement scales
Patrick Callaghan

A Research Handbook for Patient and Public Involvement Researchers Chapter 6: Psychometrics: designing and road testing new measurement scales Professor Patrick Callaghan Chapter overview Measurement scales (questionnaires) are often used in quantitative research to summarise the experiences of a group of participants, for example the number and range of symptoms they report, or their level of satisfaction with their care. We can use these questionnaires once to get a snap-shot of people’s scores at one point in time, or we can ask people to complete them on

in A research handbook for patient and public involvement researchers
Open Access (free)
Coreen Anne McGuire

, uniquely intelligent or above average in certain prized areas, but nobody wants above-average cholesterol or abnormal test results. When it comes to our health, we all want to be normal. This book’s central thesis is that health measurements are validated if they are particularly amenable to calculability and easy measurement. In this chapter, I grapple with the epistemological implications of this claim as a contention which relates to two philosophical theses. Although this is a historical book with interdisciplinary influences, this chapter explicitly discusses the

in Measuring difference, numbering normal
Open Access (free)
Coreen Anne McGuire

sleep-related eating disorders? Icing sugar falling like snow from the night sky? No: the National Institutes of Health (NIH) had changed the way the way that it measured Body Mass Index (BMI). Previously the United States had classified men with a BMI of 27.8 or above and women with a BMI of 27.3 or above as overweight. However, in 1998 it shifted the measurement down to 25, to fall in line with the World Health Organization’s (WHO) standardised classification system and to allow for easier calculability. 1 In one fell swoop thousands more people in the US were

in Measuring difference, numbering normal
Open Access (free)
Conceptual and ethodological challenges for comparative analysis
Agnieszka Piasna, Brendan Burchell, Kirsten Sehnbruch, and Nurjk Agloni

period (see discussion in Burchell et al., 2014 and Sehnbruch et al., 2015). The HDI, published by the United Nations Development Programme, is a summary measure of life expectancy, education and standard of living (measured by gross national income per capita), which has made a substantial contribution towards shifting the policy focus from economic growth to people and their capabilities. 170 Making work more equal This chapter explores the reasons for little effective progress in the conceptualisation and measurement of job quality (or related terms, such as

in Making work more equal
Towards Specialised Services?
Christopher T. Marsden

Internet, now the dominant form of consumer Internet traffic according to all reliable traffic measurement surveys (P2P is the previous decade’s problem). The future of Internet traffic management is video, but that also means public service broadcasting in the European context. Therefore, this chapter considers online video and the European public policy challenges it faces 4 The second issue is the

in Network neutrality
Open Access (free)
Conceptual links to institutional machineries
Kathleen Staudt

gender relations creates different opportunities, experience and benefits. Gender mainstreaming begins a process of understanding the baseline of institutional capabilities, measurements and actions with respect to consequences of inequality in different degrees. The track record will initially appear faulty, but it will be a tribute to those well-governed institutions GENDER MAINSTREAMING to be open, transparent and honest about documented performance. The highlights which follow illustrate how toplevel administrative commitment, backed up with resources and

in Mainstreaming gender, democratizing the state?