also as utilised in the prescription of hearing aids and, as I show in the section on ‘The telephone as hearing aid’, the interwar period featured an explosion of hearing aids based on telephone technologies, which led to the increased medicalisation of deafness as the medical community sought to temper the ‘quack’ hearing aids flooding the market. However, the medicalisation of hearing aids was no simple matter. Such medicalised prescription was complicated by conflicts over categorisation, the status of hearing aids as medical devices and the question of which
and delivery (typically homebirths). In the 1980s, UNRWA provided
professionally trained medical staff to join midwives in deliveries, supplementing traditional
knowledge with formal training (Y.M. Qasmiyeh, personal communication, 5 June 2018). The
increasing medicalisation of childbirth, including through UNRWA hospitals, led both to the
dilution of midwives’ practice, and the expectation of UNRWA support for childbirth.
UNRWA’s provision and subsequent withdrawal of ‘delivery services’ mean
that local responses may no longer be as
Women’s medicine explores the key role played by British female doctors in the
production and circulation of contraceptive knowledge and the handling of sexual
disorders between the 1920s and 1970s at the transnational level, taking France
as a point of comparison. This study follows the path of a set of women doctors
as they made their way through the predominantly male-dominated medical
landscape in establishing birth control and family planning as legitimate fields
of medicine. This journey encompasses their practical engagement with birth
control and later family planning clinics in Britain, their participation in the
development of the international movement of birth control and family planning
and their influence on French doctors. Drawing on a wide range of archived and
published medical materials, this study sheds light on the strategies British
female doctors used, and the alliances they made, to put forward their medical
agenda and position themselves as experts and leaders in birth control and
family planning research and practice.
advice in the decades preceding the introduction of these new laws. Highlighting their role, and the social context, networks, opportunities and constraints faced by women doctors, helps to challenge two types of narratives: the negative narrative of medicalisation as an oppressive process and the celebratory narrative of progress and scientific discovery underpinning the idea of sexual liberalisation. In so doing, this book adds to a growing body of research that has cast doubt on the notion of a linear process of emancipation or liberalisation
medicalisation of birth control is one aspect of the broader history of the medicalisation of the female body, a history that has attracted considerable attention from feminist historians since the 1980s in the context of the feminist health movement.
Medicalisation means ‘defining a problem in medical terms, using medical language to describe a problem, adopting a medical framework to understand a problem or using a medical intervention to treat it.
Feminist critics have
medical interventions in miners’ lives described
in this chapter, its fundamental goal was to help get injured workers back to
Medicine and the miner’s body
‘Medicalisation’, conflict and authority
While medical care remained patchy throughout the period in question, there
can be no doubt that the expansion of medical services in response to the
perceived health risks of coalmining was a significant feature of the industry’s
expansion in the century after 1780. It is likely that some sick and injured
miners benefitted significantly from access to
Measuring difference, numbering normal provides a detailed study of the technological construction of disability by examining how the audiometer and spirometer were used to create numerical proxies for invisible and inarticulable experiences. Measurements, and their manipulation, have been underestimated as crucial historical forces motivating and guiding the way we think about disability. Using measurement technology as a lens, this book draws together several existing discussions on disability, healthcare, medical practice, embodiment and emerging medical and scientific technologies at the turn of the twentieth century. As such, this work connects several important and usually separate academic subject areas and historical specialisms. The standards embedded in instrumentation created strict but ultimately arbitrary thresholds of normalcy and abnormalcy. Considering these standards from a long historical perspective reveals how these dividing lines shifted when pushed. The central thesis of this book is that health measurements are given artificial authority if they are particularly amenable to calculability and easy measurement. These measurement processes were perpetuated and perfected in the interwar years in Britain as the previously invisible limits of the body were made visible and measurable. Determination to consider body processes as quantifiable was driven by the need to compensate for disability occasioned by warfare or industry. This focus thus draws attention to the biopower associated with systems, which has emerged as a central area of concern for modern healthcare in the second decade of the twenty-first century.
contraception and the production of medical and scientific knowledge on birth control and contraception. In a nutshell, they colonised birth control and contraception.
This chapter sheds new light on some well-known aspects of the history of birth control and the Family Planning Association, with a focus on the medicalisation process and the initiatives and strategies women doctors used to position themselves as respectable experts in the new field. They developed a specific form of communication with colleagues that relied heavily on specialised medical
The book explores the relationship between violence against women on one hand,
and the rights to health and reproductive health on the other. It argues that
violation of the right to health is a consequence of violence, and that (state)
health policies might be a cause of – or create the conditions for – violence
against women. It significantly contributes to feminist and international human
rights legal scholarship by conceptualising a new ground-breaking idea, violence
against women’s health (VAWH), using the Hippocratic paradigm as the backbone of
the analysis. The two dimensions of violence at the core of the book – the
horizontal, ‘interpersonal’ dimension and the vertical ‘state policies’
dimension – are investigated through around 70 decisions of domestic, regional
and international judicial or quasi-judicial bodies (the anamnesis). The concept
of VAWH, drawn from the anamnesis, enriches the traditional concept of violence
against women with a human rights-based approach to autonomy and a reflection on
the pervasiveness of patterns of discrimination (diagnosis). VAWH as theorised
in the book allows the reconceptualisation of states’ obligations in an
innovative way, by identifying for both dimensions obligations of result, due
diligence obligations, and obligations to progressively take steps (treatment).
The book eventually asks whether it is not international law itself that is the
ultimate cause of VAWH (prognosis).
Kirsti Bohata, Alexandra Jones, Mike Mantin, and Steven Thompson
important role to play in coalfield
communities and, while the extent of their involvement in the lives of disabled
people varied from one type of disability to another, it nevertheless increased
over time from the late nineteenth to the mid-twentieth century.
MEDIC ALIS ING MINERS ?
This attention to medical services and this idea of medicalisation is not
unproblematic from a disability studies perspective, and the ways in which
medical history and disability history differ require careful consideration. Ever
since the development of the ‘social model’ of