Coreen Anne McGuire

also as utilised in the prescription of hearing aids and, as I show in the section on ‘The telephone as hearing aid’, the interwar period featured an explosion of hearing aids based on telephone technologies, which led to the increased medicalisation of deafness as the medical community sought to temper the ‘quack’ hearing aids flooding the market. However, the medicalisation of hearing aids was no simple matter. Such medicalised prescription was complicated by conflicts over categorisation, the status of hearing aids as medical devices and the question of which

in Measuring difference, numbering normal
Resilience and the Language of Compassion
Diego I. Meza

psychiatric help to IDPs in the national health system. In other words, the medicalisation of the conflict and Colombian social life may not necessarily have the repercussions that Restrepo outlines ( Corte Constitucional de Colombia, 2004 ). The national government of Colombia formalised the Protocol of comprehensive health care with a psychosocial approach in July 2013 ( MinSalud, 2013 ). The aim was to offer psychosocial assistance ‘as a strategy of reparation that is parallel to compensations’ ( Mora-Gámez, 2016 : 117). In this way, the service ‘became evident during

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
From the Global to the Local
Elena Fiddian-Qasmiyeh

and delivery (typically homebirths). In the 1980s, UNRWA provided professionally trained medical staff to join midwives in deliveries, supplementing traditional knowledge with formal training (Y.M. Qasmiyeh, personal communication, 5 June 2018). The increasing medicalisation of childbirth, including through UNRWA hospitals, led both to the dilution of midwives’ practice, and the expectation of UNRWA support for childbirth. UNRWA’s provision and subsequent withdrawal of ‘delivery services’ mean that local responses may no longer be as

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Open Access (free)
Sex, family planning and British female doctors in transnational perspective, 1920–70

Women’s medicine explores the key role played by British female doctors in the production and circulation of contraceptive knowledge and the handling of sexual disorders between the 1920s and 1970s at the transnational level, taking France as a point of comparison. This study follows the path of a set of women doctors as they made their way through the predominantly male-dominated medical landscape in establishing birth control and family planning as legitimate fields of medicine. This journey encompasses their practical engagement with birth control and later family planning clinics in Britain, their participation in the development of the international movement of birth control and family planning and their influence on French doctors. Drawing on a wide range of archived and published medical materials, this study sheds light on the strategies British female doctors used, and the alliances they made, to put forward their medical agenda and position themselves as experts and leaders in birth control and family planning research and practice.

Open Access (free)
Caroline Rusterholz

advice in the decades preceding the introduction of these new laws. Highlighting their role, and the social context, networks, opportunities and constraints faced by women doctors, helps to challenge two types of narratives: the negative narrative of medicalisation as an oppressive process and the celebratory narrative of progress and scientific discovery underpinning the idea of sexual liberalisation. In so doing, this book adds to a growing body of research that has cast doubt on the notion of a linear process of emancipation or liberalisation

in Women’s medicine
Open Access (free)
Caroline Rusterholz

medicalisation of birth control is one aspect of the broader history of the medicalisation of the female body, a history that has attracted considerable attention from feminist historians since the 1980s in the context of the feminist health movement. 3 Medicalisation means ‘defining a problem in medical terms, using medical language to describe a problem, adopting a medical framework to understand a problem or using a medical intervention to treat it. 4 Feminist critics have

in Women’s medicine
David M. Turner and Daniel Blackie

medical interventions in miners’ lives described in this chapter, its fundamental goal was to help get injured workers back to work.129 Medicine and the miner’s body 77 ‘Medicalisation’, conflict and authority While medical care remained patchy throughout the period in question, there can be no doubt that the expansion of medical services in response to the perceived health risks of coalmining was a significant feature of the industry’s expansion in the century after 1780. It is likely that some sick and injured miners benefitted significantly from access to

in Disability in the Industrial Revolution
Setting the standards for disability in the interwar period.

Measuring difference, numbering normal provides a detailed study of the technological construction of disability by examining how the audiometer and spirometer were used to create numerical proxies for invisible and inarticulable experiences. Measurements, and their manipulation, have been underestimated as crucial historical forces motivating and guiding the way we think about disability. Using measurement technology as a lens, this book draws together several existing discussions on disability, healthcare, medical practice, embodiment and emerging medical and scientific technologies at the turn of the twentieth century. As such, this work connects several important and usually separate academic subject areas and historical specialisms. The standards embedded in instrumentation created strict but ultimately arbitrary thresholds of normalcy and abnormalcy. Considering these standards from a long historical perspective reveals how these dividing lines shifted when pushed. The central thesis of this book is that health measurements are given artificial authority if they are particularly amenable to calculability and easy measurement. These measurement processes were perpetuated and perfected in the interwar years in Britain as the previously invisible limits of the body were made visible and measurable. Determination to consider body processes as quantifiable was driven by the need to compensate for disability occasioned by warfare or industry. This focus thus draws attention to the biopower associated with systems, which has emerged as a central area of concern for modern healthcare in the second decade of the twenty-first century.

Thomas D’haeninck, Jan Vandersmissen, Gita Deneckere, and Christophe Verbruggen

to go beyond the scope of the individual body. 10 They increasingly felt the urge to advocate for better living conditions and social change too. 11 This process is referred to as the medicalisation of society. During the nineteenth century self-proclaimed experts with medical backgrounds perceived, diagnosed and declared social problems as if they were illnesses. 12

in Medical histories of Belgium
Tinne Claes and Katrin Pilz

of medical images suggests that laypeople were familiar with visual depictions of anatomy. Yet the advertisement also complicates grand narratives of professionalisation and medicalisation, for it shows that ‘quacks’ also claimed medicine as a privileged site of knowledge for their own commercial agenda, and indeed often created their professional identities by copying mainstream

in Medical histories of Belgium