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Medicine and culture in the nineteenth century

This collaborative volume explores changing perceptions of health and disease in the context of the burgeoning global modernities of the long nineteenth century. During this period, popular and medical understandings of the mind and body were challenged, modified, and reframed by the politics and structures of ‘modern life’, understood in industrial, social, commercial, and technological terms. Bringing together work by leading international scholars, this volume demonstrates how a multiplicity of medical practices were organised around new and evolving definitions of the modern self. The study offers varying and culturally specific definitions of what constituted medical modernity for practitioners around the world in this period. Chapters examine the ways in which cancer, suicide, and social degeneration were seen as products of the stresses and strains of ‘new’ ways of living in the nineteenth century, and explore the legal, institutional, and intellectual changes that contributed to both positive and negative understandings of modern medical practice. The volume traces the ways in which physiological and psychological problems were being constituted in relation to each other, and to their social contexts, and offers new ways of contextualising the problems of modernity facing us in the twenty-first century.

Open Access (free)
Medicine, politics and the regulation of health in the twentieth century

Concepts of ‘balance’ have been central to modern politics, medicine and society. Yet, while many health, environmental and social challenges are discussed globally in terms of imbalances in biological, social and ecological systems, strategies for addressing modern excesses and deficiencies have focused almost exclusively on the agency of the individual. Balancing the Self explores the diverse ways in which balanced and unbalanced selfhoods have been subject to construction, intervention and challenge across the long twentieth century. Through original chapters on subjects as varied as obesity control, fatigue and the regulation of work, and the physiology of exploration in extreme conditions, the volume analyses how concepts of balance and rhetorics of empowerment and responsibility have historically been used for a variety of purposes, by a diversity of political and social agencies. Historicising present-day concerns, as well as uncovering the previously hidden interests of the past, this volume’s wide-ranging discussions of health governance, subjectivity and balance will be of interest to historians of medicine, sociologists, social policy analysts, and social and political historians alike.

Open Access (free)
Environmental justice and citizen science in a post-truth age
Editors: Thom Davies and Alice Mah

This book examines the relationship between environmental justice and citizen science, focusing on enduring issues and new challenges in a post-truth age. Debates over science, facts, and values have always been pivotal within environmental justice struggles. For decades, environmental justice activists have campaigned against the misuses of science, while at the same time engaging in community-led citizen science. However, post-truth politics has threatened science itself. This book makes the case for the importance of science, knowledge, and data that are produced by and for ordinary people living with environmental risks and hazards. The international, interdisciplinary contributions range from grassroots environmental justice struggles in American hog country and contaminated indigenous communities, to local environmental controversies in Spain and China, to questions about “knowledge justice,” citizenship, participation, and data in citizen science surrounding toxicity. The book features inspiring studies of community-based participatory environmental health and justice research; different ways of sensing, witnessing, and interpreting environmental injustice; political strategies for seeking environmental justice; and ways of expanding the concepts and forms of engagement of citizen science around the world. While the book will be of critical interest to specialists in social and environmental sciences, it will also be accessible to graduate and postgraduate audiences. More broadly, the book will appeal to members of the public interested in social justice issues, as well as community members who are thinking about participating in citizen science and activism. Toxic Truths includes distinguished contributing authors in the field of environmental justice, alongside cutting-edge research from emerging scholars and community activists.

Le Bone Florence of Rome and bourgeois self-making
Felicity Riddy

the records of miracles assembled for the inquest into the sanctity of St Louis, Farmer shows that poor men were particularly associated with the body by the clerical compilers of this evidence for the saint’s miraculous powers. 41 See Le Bone Florence, ed. Heffernan, p. 24. 42 For women’s role in the care of the sick, see Carol Rawcliffe, Medicine and Society in Later Medieval England (Stroud, 1995), chs 8 and 9. MUP_McDonald_10_Chap9 216 11/18/03, 17:06

in Pulp fictions of medieval England
Feijoo versus the ‘falsely possessed’ in eighteenth-century Spain
María Tausiet

et le corps (Paris, 1985); Jean Céard, ‘Folie et démonologie au XVIe siècle’, in Folie et déraison à la Renaissance, Colloque International (Brussels, 1976); Matthew Ramsey, ‘Magical Healing, Witchcraft and Elite Discourse 60 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 Beyond the witch trials in Eighteenth and Nineteenth Century France’, in Marijke Gijswijt-Hofstra, Hilary Marland and Hans de Waardt (eds), Illness and Healing Alternatives in Western Europe (London and New York, 1997), pp. 14–37; Mary Lindemann, Medicine and Society in Early Modern Europe

in Beyond the witch trials
Martin D. Moore

. Indeed, though this chapter has focused on change, the majority of premises were left unaltered until later decades. As noted, moreover, thinking about the waiting room and its patients was closely connected to the extension of collectivised funding dating from the commencement of state insurance in 1913. Equally, some of the issues considered here were connected with longer-term trends in medicine and society. Post-war economic and political developments generated affluence, raising questions about deference and class prejudice

in Posters, protests, and prescriptions
Environmental enumeration, justice, and apprehension
Nicholas Shapiro, Nasser Zakariya, and Jody A. Roberts

Max Liboiron, Sara Wylie, Ana Rosen Vollmar, the Center for the Study of Science, Technology, Medicine and Society at University of California, Berkeley, fellows and staff in the Institute for Research at the Science History Institute, Christy Schneider, and several close reads by Wyatt Galusky. This material was previously published as Shapiro, Nicholas, Nasser Zakariya, and Jody Roberts, “A Wary Alliance: From Enumerating Environments to Inviting Apprehension,” Engaging STS 3 (2017), 575–602. Notes  1 Selections from these moments can be viewed online in a mini

in Toxic truths
Jolien Gijbels and Kaat Wils

At the time of the institutionalisation of gynaecology, biological sex differences increasingly marked discourses in medicine and society. Belgian physicians started to accentuate women’s social mission as mothers by relating this mission to their ‘nature’. In this way doctors also came up with an answer to existing medical and political anxieties regarding the so

in Medical histories of Belgium
George Campbell Gosling

Gosling, ‘Paying for Health’, pp. 92–9. 97 Hilary Marland, Medicine and Society in Wakefield and Huddersfield, 1780–1870 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987); R.J. Morris, Class, Sect and Party. The Making of the British Middle Class: Leeds, 1820–50 (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1990

in Payment and philanthropy in British healthcare, 1918–48
Kirsti Bohata, Alexandra Jones, Mike Mantin, and Steven Thompson

September 1920. 18 GA, DBLI/RH/2, Minute Book, Special General Committee Meeting, 22 April 1925. The ‘Conditions of Service’ document was attached to the minutes, and thus was written before the meeting took place. 19 For examples, see Mary Wilson Carpenter, Health, Medicine, and Society in Victorian England (Santa Barbara: Praeger, 2010); Colin Lees and Sue Ralph, ‘Charitable Provision for Blind People and Deaf People in Late Nineteenth Century London’, Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs, 4:3 (2004), pp. 148–60. 20 GA, DBLI/RH/15, Minute Book, Management

in Disability in industrial Britain