Iseult Honohan

Introduction In his illuminating essay Rainer Bauböck advances a comprehensive approach to the question of how to determine membership of a democratic political community, that takes into account alternative theoretical principles, a variety of kinds of contemporary membership claims, and the complexities of current multiple levels of political structures. He identifies his all citizen stakeholders

in Democratic inclusion
Hakim Khaldi

( Figure 1 ). 6 Under this regime, membership of the party seemed to take precedence over Syrian identity and especially over the interests of the local population. According to local sources, the real political and military leaders were the non-elected executives of the PKK. All the posters on the roadsides and buildings, official or not, made constant reference to the PKK’s leader imprisoned in Turkey. The few Syrians who dared to question the system

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
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Lewis Hine’s Photographs of Refugees for the American Red Cross, 1918–20
Sonya de Laat

1920, it was charged with financial ‘extravagances and other abuses’ ( Irwin, 2013 ). Although eventually exonerated, the damage had been done, resulting in a dramatic seventy-five percent reduction in membership during the November drive. Even The Red Cross Magazine folded by the year’s end. This was also a time when the ARC made moves to have the United States become the home of the League of Red Cross societies – a peacetime arm of the Red Cross movement. The ICRC leaders in Geneva were outraged that the ARC extended invitations only to Allied countries, a

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
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Rainer Bauböck in dialogue
Series: Critical Powers

This book addresses the major theoretical and practical issues of the forms of citizenship and access to citizenship in different types of polity, and the specification and justification of rights of non-citizen immigrants as well as non-resident citizens. It also addresses the conditions under which norms governing citizenship can legitimately vary. The book discusses the principles of including all affected interests (AAI), all subject to coercion (ASC) and all citizenship stakeholders (ACS). They complement each other because they serve distinct purposes of democratic inclusion. The book proposes that democratic inclusion principles specify a relation between an individual or group that has an inclusion claim and a political community that aims to achieve democratic legitimacy for its political decisions and institutions. It contextualizes the principle of stakeholder inclusion, which provides the best answer to the question of democratic boundaries of membership, by applying it to polities of different types. The book distinguishes state, local and regional polities and argues that they differ in their membership character. It examines how a principle of stakeholder inclusion applies to polities of different types. The book illustrates the difference between consensual and automatic modes of inclusion by considering the contrast between birthright acquisition of citizenship, which is generally automatic, and naturalization, which requires an application.

Will Kymlicka
Sue Donaldson

Rainer Bauböck's essay argues persuasively that our account of democratic inclusion needs to be more complex than is usually recognized. Whereas most authors attempt to identify a single fundamental principle of democratic inclusion – whether it is the all affected interests principle or the all subjected to coercion principle or some social membership/stakeholder principle – Bauböck shows that there are different types

in Democratic inclusion
Neil McNaughton

Britain and Issues concerning the European womenUnion Britain and the European Union 249 16 ➤ The background to British membership ➤ The main impacts of British membership ➤ The ways in which the party system has been affected by the EU ➤ Future prospects for British involvement THE STORY OF BRITISH MEMBERSHIP Britain stays out When serious discussions began to establish a successor to the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) in 1956, Britain made it clear that it was not intending to join any new organisation. Prime Minister Harold Macmillan, a

in Understanding British and European political issues
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Modernisation via Europeanisation
Brigid Laffan

2444Ch10 3/12/02 10 2:04 pm Page 248 Brigid Laffan Ireland: modernisation via Europeanisation Introduction: EU membership as part of the National Project Membership of the European Union since 1973 represented for Ireland the achievement of a roof or a shelter for its national project of modernisation. Following a re-assessment of Ireland’s economic policy in 1958, when a decision was taken to pursue external-led economic growth financed by multinational investment, membership of the large European market with its CAP became highly desirable. Economic

in Fifteen into one?
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Domestic change through European integration
Otmar Höll
Johannes Pollack
, and
Sonja Puntscher-Riekmann

partnership’.2 In its international orientation membership in the UN (1955) and in the Council of Europe (1956) was achieved shortly after the State Treaty in May 1955 was signed and the Constitutional Law on permanent neutrality as the condition for regaining independence was adopted. Together with the socio-economic success story these factors formed the basis of a so far unknown strong popular identification with the ‘Austrian Nation’.3 While it maintained a rigid attitude on military aspects of permanent neutrality, Austrian politicians showed a more flexible stance in

in Fifteen into one?
David Owen

of the populus, a citizen of the polity, but not who is entitled to be a member of the demos. In this section, I advance this argument by distinguishing different types of membership of the demos and focusing on what I will call the authorial membership of the demos. In the following section, I argue that we have reason to distinguish between populus and authorial membership of the demos in addressing the issues identified by Bauböck

in Democratic inclusion
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A pluralist theory of citizenship
Rainer Bauböck

into account when withdrawing nationality and the more recent moves in several EU states to deprive citizens joining a terrorist organization of their nationality; the Scottish referendum on independence in November 2014 and the nearly simultaneous rejection by the Spanish government and Constitutional Court of a similar referendum in Catalonia. All these decisions rely implicitly on contested ideas about democratic boundaries and membership

in Democratic inclusion