A history of child development in Britain
Author: Bonnie Evans

This book explains the current fascination with autism by linking it to a longer history of childhood development. Drawing from a staggering array of primary sources, it traces autism back to its origins in the early twentieth century and explains why the idea of autism has always been controversial and why it experienced a 'metamorphosis' in the 1960s and 1970s. The book locates changes in psychological theory in Britain in relation to larger shifts in the political and social organisation of schools, hospitals, families and childcare. It explores how government entities have dealt with the psychological category of autism. The book looks in detail at a unique children's 'psychotic clinic' set up in London at the Maudsley Hospital in the 1950s. It investigates the crisis of government that developed regarding the number of 'psychotic' children who were entering the public domain when large long-stay institutions closed. The book focuses on how changes in the organisation of education and social services for all children in 1970 gave further support to the concept of autism that was being developed in London's Social Psychiatry Research Unit. It also explores how new techniques were developed to measure 'social impairment' in children in light of the Seebohm reforms of 1968 and other legal changes of the early 1970s. Finally, the book argues that epidemiological research on autism in the 1960s and 1970s pioneered at London's Institute of Psychiatry has come to define global attempts to analyse and understand what, exactly, autism is.

By expanding the geographical scope of the history of violence and war, this volume challenges both Western and state-centric narratives of the decline of violence and its relationship to modernity. It highlights instead similarities across early modernity in terms of representations, legitimations, applications of, and motivations for violence. It seeks to integrate methodologies of the study of violence into the history of war, thereby extending the historical significance of both fields of research. Thirteen case studies outline the myriad ways in which large-scale violence was understood and used by states and non-state actors throughout the early modern period across Africa, Asia, the Americas, the Atlantic, and Europe, demonstrating that it was far more complex than would be suggested by simple narratives of conquest and resistance. Moreover, key features of imperial violence apply equally to large-scale violence within societies. As the authors argue, violence was a continuum, ranging from small-scale, local actions to full-blown war. The latter was privileged legally and increasingly associated with states during early modernity, but its legitimacy was frequently contested and many of its violent forms, such as raiding and destruction of buildings and crops, could be found in activities not officially classed as war.

Open Access (free)
Antipodean life as a comparative exercise
Sarah Comyn

Frank to maintain his moral code and forces his father to abandon his hypocritical ways so that the ‘taciturn mammon worshipper’ is ‘transformed into a kindly and somewhat garrulous sexagenarian’. 51 Rather than a place of degeneration that celebrates criminality, the Antipodes instead becomes a place of moral regeneration. An opposite journey to that of Frank Hungercash can be found in the satire ‘The Metamorphosis of Travel’, published in Melbourne Punch in 1883, which traces the journey of a couple, the Lilleys, as they undertake the grand tour of ‘Yurrup’. 52

in Worlding the south
Open Access (free)
Perceiving, describing and modelling child development
Bonnie Evans

clarification. The Metamorphosis of Autism seeks to explain why this is the case. If diagnostic changes have occurred over time, the historical reasons for these changes and their relation to wider theories of child development are still little understood. Sociologists, journalists, philosophers, literary critics and others have offered different explanations as to why more people are now diagnosed with

in The metamorphosis of autism
Open Access (free)
Bonnie Evans

with a statement or an Education, Health and Care Plan. In 2016, there were 57,211. 1 As this book has argued, the metamorphosis of the autism concept occurred following radical changes in the construction of child rights in the late 1950s. The integration and education of large groups of children who had previously been excluded from the education system, and from society at large, led to the creation

in The metamorphosis of autism
Rachel E. Hile

allegorical interpretations than one might otherwise make. That a Catholic would use a poem by the staunch Prot- MUP_Hile_SpenserSatire_Printer.indd 105 14/10/2016 15:35 106 Spenserian satire estant Spenser to sharpen and focus his satire may seem surprising, but it suggests how influential Spenser was as an allegorical satirist in the 1590s.14 Dymoke creates numerous parallels between his poem and Spenser’s Muiopotmos to highlight the importance of the earlier poem as an intertext. Both are Ovidian poems of metamorphosis, in which “two mightie ones” (Spenser

in Spenserian satire
Open Access (free)
witchcraft continued
Willem de Blécourt and Owen Davies

metamorphosis could easily become attached to a member of the community. How then should we evaluate the principle of ostention which is central to Stephen Mitchell’s interpretation of the 1808 Izzard case? This principle refers to the possibility of people acting out stories, but how did they perform broomstick riding or change into an animal? A very special example of making stories into physical reality is provided by Richard

in Witchcraft Continued
Steve Sohmer

]. 9 By contrast, in 1998 Peter Smith sounded an earthy ‘key in the Renaissance conception of meaning’ leading to ‘Sir John Harrington’s Ovidian parody Metamorphosis of Ajax [A Jakes = privy]’. 10 A decade later, Elam summed these sorties: ‘Despite the unenviable fate of the steward, and despite the unflattering image of interpretation that the episode represents

in Reading Shakespeare’s mind
Steve Sohmer

Lamb of God (London, 1590 ), Richard Harvey had attacked Nashe by name. 10 Charles Nicholl, A Cup of News: The Life of Thomas Nashe (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1984 ). The eight other books burned were John Marston, The Metamorphosis of Pigmalions Image and

in Reading Shakespeare’s mind
Open Access (free)
Trauma, dream and narrative
Victoria Best

hope of mental health, not just in the mind’s spectacular resources, nor in the infinite possibilities of narrative, but in the process of transformation between the two. Lambrichs’s work urges us to consider the alchemy of metamorphosis that takes place between inner and outer worlds, between experience and its internalisation, and between differing forms of symbolic representation, to discover to what extent we can truly possess our many lives. Notes  Louise L. Lambrichs, Journal d’Hannah (Paris: La Différence, ); A ton image (Paris: Olivier/Seuil, ). All

in Women’s writing in contemporary France