Romani Minorities in Europe and Civic Marginalisation

Numerous scholars and policymakers have highlighted the predicament of Roma as the most disadvantaged ethnic minority in Europe. This predicament has often been discussed as an unfortunate anomaly within otherwise inclusive liberal democratic states.

In this book, Julija Sardelić offers a novel socio-legal enquiry into the position of Roma as marginalised citizens in Europe. Whilst acknowledging previous research on ethnic discrimination, racism and the socio-economic disadvantages Roma face in Europe, she discusses civic marginalisation from the perspective of global citizenship studies. She argues that the Romani minorities in Europe are unique, but the approaches of civic marginalisation Roma have faced are not. States around the globe have applied similar legislation and policies that have made traditionally settled minorities marginalised. These may have seemed inclusive to all citizens or have been designed to improve the position of minority citizens yet they have often actively contributed to the construction of civic marginalisation. The book looks at civic marginalisation by examining topics such as free movement and migration, statelessness and school segregation as well as how minorities respond to marginalisation. It shows how marginalised minorities can have a wide spectrum of ‘multicultural rights’ and still face racism and significant human rights violations. To understand such a paradox, Sardelić offers new theoretical concepts, such as the invisible edges of citizenship and citizenship fringes.

Community, language and culture under the Celtic Tiger
Steve Coleman

Irish postmodernity’, eih ch-10.P65 182 26/3/03, 15:18 Community, language and culture 183 the Gaeltacht has become the state’s testing ground for decentralisation and local governance, as well as for the progressive recognition of linguistic and cultural minority rights.38 The ‘local and universal’ Gaeltacht These developments present both opportunities for and threats to the construction of community. As Ó hIfearnáin argues,39 the Irish state has progressively withdrawn from direct action: following a policy of disengaging with direct sponsorship not simply

in The end of Irish history?

approach the civic marginalisation of Roma in Europe from a different perspective: it argues that Roma have been a visible minority but invisible as citizens. The EU and its Member States have manifestly constructed (supra)national citizenship on the foundation of fundamental rights and minority protection. Nevertheless, the chapter questions why such a construction still leaves many Roma, who are clearly in need of having their fundamental and minority rights protected (Pogány, 2004 ), on the fringes of citizenship: can this be attributed to the uniqueness of Roma as a

in The Fringes of Citizenship
The logics underpining EU enlargement
Helene Sjursen
Karen E. Smith

the common values of the member states. But one important omission, as compared with the Copenhagen conditions, should be noted: protection of minorities. Minority rights are controversial within the EU, as the member states are divided over the concept. France, for example, is more inclined to emphasise individual rights and has neither signed nor ratified the Council of Europe’s Framework Convention on National Minorities, whereas

in Rethinking European Union Foreign Policy
Democratisation, nationalism and security in former Yugoslavia
Paul Latawski
Martin A. Smith

the ‘internationalisation’ of minority rights, the emphasis on the individual rather than collective rights has prevailed in the post-Second World War period. 44 Previously, in the broad sweep of history, the evolution of international minority rights law was grounded in the treatment of religious minorities; suggesting more of a collective thrust to minority rights than one centred on the individual

in The Kosovo crisis and the evolution of post-Cold War European security
Open Access (free)
Jonathan Seglow

larger culture. Even where self-government is demanded, its purpose need not be to maintain and transmit a unique cultural identity. To be fair to Kymlicka, he does appreciate the difficulties involved in bringing cultures into the ambit of normative analysis and he explicitly says that cultural claims must be assessed on a case by case basis. He further distinguishes between justifying a theory of minority rights and imposing it

in Political concepts
Open Access (free)
Tracing relatedness and diversity in the Albanian–Montenegrin borderland
Jelena Tošić

through genealogies and modes of relatedness characteristic of the border region that is the focus here is one of the important factors for peaceful coexistence: that is, the lack of ethno-national violence. Moreover, I argue that the border legacy of peaceful coexistence should be considered within the ongoing process of EU integration, which – through its focus on minority rights – has so far strengthened rather than transcended ethno-national allegiance. 82 Migrating borders and moving times MONT E N E G R O Podgorica Cetinje Ljubotinj Tuzi Vranj M A L Ä S I E M

in Migrating borders and moving times
Total infringement of citizenship

statelessness as its main topic. Romani minorities throughout Europe face challenges when accessing the rights they have been granted as citizens, as I have explored in previous chapters. Even when Roma have possessed minority rights, these have not guaranteed a more equal position as citizens either in the national or in the broader European context. Two main conclusions emerged from the analysis in the EU NRIS Framework and the states’ actions based on it: (1) despite some local stories of success, the Framework had not achieved its main goal of

in The Fringes of Citizenship
Eşref Aksu

citizens of Cyprus’, but ‘the importance of this question ha[d] not been debated in the Council’. 39 Although there was some mention of ‘minority rights’ in the search for a resolution to the conflict, 40 systematic emphasis on the importance and promotion of human rights was lacking. 41 It was not until the news had arrived of several Greeks being deported from Turkey in retaliation for Greek Cypriot

in The United Nations, intra-state peacekeeping and normative change
Open Access (free)
Reflecting on citizenship from the fringe

manifestly benevolent attempts to include all citizens – be it by means of universal inclusion or nuanced, group-targeted rights – it is because of these invisible edges that Roma end up as marginalised citizens. The invisible edges of citizenship illustrate the dynamic nature of citizenship and minority rights legislation: legislation and policies are never just prescribed rules of conduct but are also enacted arrangements. Marginalisation does not arise solely through a failure to implement distinctly well-meaning legislation: it can, in fact, be the very implementation

in The Fringes of Citizenship