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An intellectual history
Author: Johan Östling

In the twenty-first century, intense debates concerning the university have flared up in Germany. An underlying factor is the general feeling that the country's once so excellent universities have been irredeemably left behind. This book anchors the current debate about the university in the past by exploring the history and varying meanings of the tradition of Wilhelm von Humboldt. It first provides a history of the Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin and the history and content of the Humboldtian tradition. Humboldt was involved in Greek antiquity, theory of education, Prussian educational system, and comparative linguistics. If, in spite of this versatility, a comprehensive idea, his Lebensthema, is to be found, it would have to be human beings and their Education. The book discusses the contributions of Adolf von Harnack and Eduard Spranger who emphasised Humboldt as a prominent figure in German university history. It focuses on three of the most influential figures in the post-war debate on the university: philosopher Karl Jaspers, historian Gerhard Ritter, and Germanic philologist Werner Richter. The 150th anniversary celebrations of the university in 1960 saw the eastern Berlin academia claiming to be the bearers of the true Humboldtian spirit and the west demonstrating itself as taking over Humboldt's original idea. The years following 2000 saw most European countries realising university reforms without any notable opposition, but in Germany the Bologna process gave rise to heated discussions in the public sphere.

Open Access (free)
Johan Östling

, Sputnik: The Shock of the Century (New York, 2001) and Nicholas Barnett, ‘ “RUSSIA WINS SPACE 142 Humboldt and the modern German university 10  Protesting students in Munich in 1968 Tradition under debate 143 This general support for science and scholarship was gained under duress. It was not merely the triumphs of the Eastern bloc that worried people and called for action. Even in comparison to other countries, primarily the United States, Great Britain, and France, the West German research and educational system appeared neglected and underfunded. The domestic

in Humboldt and the modern German university
Johan Östling

, ‘The Writing of University History at the End of Another Century’, Oxford Review of Education, 23:2 (1997); Rainer A. Müller, ‘Genese, Methoden und Tendenzen der allgemeinen deutschen Universitätsgeschichte: Zur Entwicklung einer historischen Spezialdisziplin’, Mitteilungen der Österreichischen Gesellschaft für Wissenschaftsgeschichte, 2 Humboldt and the modern German university Thus there has been, since the very beginning, a close relationship between university history and the historical jubilees of the academy. Modern historians have pointed out that while

in Humboldt and the modern German university
Johan Östling

‘System Althoff’, see Josephson, Den akademiska frihetens gränser, pp. 169–73. 3  In great detail in Rüdiger vom Bruch, Wissenschaft, Politik und öffentliche Meinung: Gelehrtenpolitik im Wilhelminischen Deutschland (1890–1914) (Husum, 1980); in summary in Anderson, European Universities, pp. 151–61. 52 Humboldt and the modern German university tensions. The number of students increased rapidly, but permanent jobs became only slightly more numerous. This was especially troublesome for young Privatdozenten with Habilitation – that is, scholars qualified for a

in Humboldt and the modern German university
Open Access (free)
Johan Östling

: Symposier på Krapperups borg nr 10, ed. by Kim Salomon (Göteborg, 2017). 2  Burtscheidt, Humboldts falsche Erben, pp. 12–14; Ash, ‘Humboldt the Undead’, pp. 84–85. Scholarly literature on Wilhelm von Humboldt and the German university tradition was published during these years as well. The following may be mentioned: Menze, Bildungsreform; Sweet, Wilhelm von Humboldt; Ulrich Hübner, Wilhelm von Humboldt und die Bildungspolitik: Eine 208 Humboldt and the modern German university In the debate on ideas that did take place, it was not difficult to sense a mood of crisis

in Humboldt and the modern German university
Johan Östling

University; Hochschuloffiziere und Wiederaufbau des Hochschulwesens in Deutschland 1945–1949: Die sowjetische Besatzungszone, ed. by Manfred Heinemann (Berlin, 2000); Norman M. Naimark, The Russians in Germany: A History of the Soviet Zone of Occupation, 1945–1949 (Cambridge, MA, 1995), pp. 440–48; Ilko-Sascha Kowalczuk, Geist im Dienste der Macht: Hochschulpolitik in der SBZ/DDR 1945 bis 1961 (Berlin, 2003); GunillaFriederike Budde, Frauen der Intelligenz: Akademikerinnen in der DDR 1945 bis 1975 (Göttingen, 2003). 86 Humboldt and the modern German university 7  The

in Humboldt and the modern German university
Johan Östling

Östling, ‘What Is a University? Answers to a Very German Question’, in Thinking Ahead: Research, Funding and the Future: RJ Yearbook 2015/2016, ed. by Jenny Björkman & Björn Fjæstad (Göteborg, 2015); and Johan Östling, ‘Vad är ett universitet? Svar på en mycket tysk fråga’, in Tänka vidare: Forskning, finansiering, framtid: RJ:s årsbok 2015/2016, ed. by Jenny Björkman & Björn Fjæstad (Göteborg, 2015). 24 Humboldt and the modern German university academies, that most of the practical and theoretical research was to be conducted. Towards the end of the eighteenth

in Humboldt and the modern German university