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Kant
Andrew Bowie

1 Modern philosophy and the emergence of aesthetic theory: Kant Self-consciousness, knowledge and freedom The importance attributed to aesthetic questions in recent philosophy becomes easier to grasp if one considers the reasons for the emergence of modern aesthetic theory. Kant’s main work on aesthetics, the ‘third Critique’, the Critique of Judgement (CJ) (1790), forms part of his response to unresolved questions which emerge from his Critique of Pure Reason (CPR) (1781) and Critique of Practical Reason (1787).1 In order to understand the significance of the CJ

in Aesthetics and subjectivity
From Kant to Nietzsche
Author: Andrew Bowie

In 1796 a German politico-philosophical manifesto proclaims the 'highest act of reason' as an 'aesthetic act'. The ways in which this transformation relates to the development of some of the major directions in modern philosophy is the focus of this book. The book focuses on the main accounts of the human subject and on the conceptions of art and language which emerge within the Kantian and post-Kantian history of aesthetics. Immanuel Kant's main work on aesthetics, the 'third Critique', the Critique of Judgement, forms part of his response to unresolved questions which emerge from his Critique of Pure Reason and Critique of Practical Reason. The early Romantics, who, after all, themselves established the term, can be characterized in a way which distinguishes them from later German Romanticism. The 'Oldest System Programme of German Idealism', is a manifesto for a new philosophy and exemplifies the spirit of early Idealism, not least with regard to mythology. The crucial question posed by the Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph Schelling of the System of Transcendental Idealism (STI) is how art relates to philosophy, a question which has recently reappeared in post-structuralism and in aspects of pragmatism. Despite his undoubted insights, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel's insufficiency in relation to music is part of his more general problem with adequately theorising self-consciousness, and thus with his aesthetic theory. Friedrich Schleiermacher argues in the hermeneutics that interpretation of the meaning of Kunst is itself also an 'art'. The book concludes with a discussion on music, language, and Romantic thought.

Open Access (free)
Andrew Bowie

see, to vital changes in both the production and reception of music. The ways in which this transformation relates to the development of some of the major directions in modern philosophy will form the focus of my investigation. Modern philosophy begins when the generally accepted basis upon which the world is interpreted ceases to be a deity whose pattern is assumed to have already been imprinted into the universe. The new philosophical task is therefore for human reason to establish its own legitimacy as the ground of truth. This transformation is prepared in the

in Aesthetics and subjectivity
Open Access (free)
Andrew Bowie

traditions presented in the present book is in part a result of the perception that both the Heideggerian and the physicalist ways of thinking about the subject are inadequate as interpretations of the subject’s role in accounts of modernity. Ernst Tugendhat has claimed that ‘The right path for modern philosophy between romanticism and positivism is yet to be found’ (Tugendhat 1992 p. 432), and the contrasts just described make this very apparent, even as they reveal the bizarre alliances which can result between the extremes of these differing paths. The seeds of the

in Aesthetics and subjectivity
Open Access (free)
Art as the ‘organ of philosophy’
Andrew Bowie

views, and this is particularly apparent in the STI. Despite all its failings, this text does provide important arguments as to why a modern conception of reason should include an adequate account of aesthetics. In doing so it offers an alternative to Hegel’s contentions, to be considered in Chapter 5, that modern philosophy has gone beyond art and that philosophy’s main task now lies elsewhere. Adorno says of the contrast between Schelling and Hegel: ‘When Schelling declared art to be the organ of philosophy he unintentionally admitted what the great Idealist

in Aesthetics and subjectivity
Open Access (free)
The beginning of aesthetic theory and the end of art
Andrew Bowie

between those who still pursue his grand aims by trying to show how he offers a systematic answer to the major problems of modern philosophy, and those, like Robert Brandom and John McDowell, who are now mobilising his arguments in order to escape from some of the epistemological impasses in the analytical tradition. Most histories of German Idealism see Hegel as making the vital steps towards a complete systematic philosophy which goes beyond the limitations of Fichte and Schelling (for example, Kroner 1924). More recently it has been precisely this aim of completeness

in Aesthetics and subjectivity
Fichte, Hölderlin and Novalis
Andrew Bowie

that Freud’s initial question in the lecture is reminiscent of some of the questions which Fichte poses for modern philosophy. In the lecture Freud develops the model of the psyche which divides the I into id, super-ego, and ego. The lecture concludes with the famous injunction that ‘Wo Es war, soll Ich werden’ (Where Id [It] was, Ego [I] should become).1 The aim of psychoanalysis, as Freud sees it, is to enable the I to integrate more of its basis in natural drives into itself and to become more independent of the super-ego, the locus of the imperatives internalised

in Aesthetics and subjectivity
Open Access (free)
Paul Gilroy’s The Black Atlantic
Laura Chrisman

:00 am Page 81 Journeying to death 81 insistence that the true, the good, and the beautiful had distinct origins and belong to different domains of knowledge. First slavery itself and then their memory of it induced many of them to query the foundational moves of modern philosophy and social thought, whether they came from the natural rights theorists … the idealists who wanted to emancipate politics from morals so that it could become a sphere of strategic action, or the political economists of the bourgeoisie who first formulated the separation of economic

in Postcolonial contraventions
Open Access (free)
Graeme Kirkpatrick

contingent on alienation and reification and, therefore, as open to change in future. Kant’s philosophy demonstrated the interdependence of subject and object but, by rendering the object ‘in-itself’ as noumenal and beyond human experience, made their separation permanent, installing capitalist alienation at the heart of modern philosophy. Historicist philosophy since then, including Marx, has suggested that subject and object might be brought back together, based on the understanding that they were mediated primarily by labour rather than consciousness and that, while

in Technical politics
A cinematic response to pessimism
Davide Panagia

in Modern Philosophy,” in Must We Mean What We Say?, passim. 16 Wittgenstein, Philosophical Investigations , para. 144. 17 Wittgenstein, Philosophical Investigations , p. 142e, para. 524

in Cinema, democracy and perfectionism